The Arrival of the Dutch and British in the Indian Ocean
The defeat of the Spanish Armada in 1588 permitted Dutch, English and French traders into the Indian Ocean. The French stayed in Madagascar. The Dutch set up pepper entrepôts in the Malay Archipelago, thus avoiding the Portuguese in the north but not the English. The first twenty years of the 17c were marked by balanced naval pressures. Then the Dutch and English merchants combined forces and mounted a commercial blockade of Goa. The Portuguese galleys were bottled up, unable to prevent the capture of Portuguese Ormuz, opening up the Persian Gulf to trade. Thus was Portuguese hegemony neutralised.