Archive Results For: Interwar

U.S. Naval Intelligence and the Imperial Japanese Fleet during the Washington Treaty Era, c.1922-36

By Douglas Ford

Following the Washington naval arms limitation agreement of 1922 intelligence on the Imperial Japanese Navy became a top US priority. The limited intelligence sources available to the Office of Naval Intelligence (ONI) and the range and assessment of information obtained are discussed. The ONI’s assessment is discussed in detail showing an overall underestimate of Japanese […] Read More

Filed under: Interwar | Pacific
Subjects include: Navies | Strategy & Diplomacy | Weapons

The British Contribution to Seafarers’ Welfare in Mediterranean and Black Sea Ports Since the 1820s

By Alston Kennerley

The seamen’s mission movement was globalized from the 1820s. In Mediterranean and Black Sea ports welfare was early provided by the Nonconformist BFSS (the British and Foreign Seamen’s Friend Society and Bethel Union), conducting shipboard services on Sundays. From the 1830s to 1860s the society declined, but the Consular Advances Act (1825) gave state support […] Read More

Filed under: Interwar | Mediterranean | Other (Nineteenth C) | Other (location)
Subjects include: Harbours & Dockyards | Merchant Marines | Navies

The Ascent of Extranational Tide Tables

By Paul Hughes and Alan D. Wall

The nineteenth century saw the development of tidal prediction from synthetic, which predicts high and low water for diurnal and semidiurnal tides, to harmonic, which deals with the whole tidal profile. Starting in 1839, France had by 1874 calculated fifteen home ports, and her colonies with a volume based on Tonkin in 1873; America had […] Read More

Filed under: Atlantic | WW1 | English Channel | Interwar | Other (Nineteenth C) | Indian Ocean | Pacific | Other (location)
Subjects include: Merchant Marines | Navies | Science & Exploration

The Fisherman who Nearly Started a War with Japan

By Joe Follansbee

In May 1938, an American cod fisherman, Captain J.E. Shields, achieved instant celebrity when he sent a message to the mainland asking for a dozen high-powered rifles to use against Japanese salmon fishermen in the Bering Sea. This essay explores the sources of Shields’s aggression: personal gain, individual racism, competition between Japanese and American fishermen, […] Read More

Filed under: Interwar | Pacific
Subjects include: Whaling & Fishing

Politics or Posturing: a Legislative Debate on Naval Expenditures 1925-9

By Raymond W. Westphal Jr.

The Conservative Party under Stanley Baldwin formed the British government for four years between 1925 and 1929; a time when spending on the Royal Navy was still five times that on the RAF and almost ten percent greater than the Army vote and spending on education. This is an analysis of debate both within the […] Read More

Filed under: Interwar
Subjects include: Administration | Navies

Note: Plymouth Sailing Trawlers

By Peter Thomson

A further account of the fishing fleet as it existed in the 1930s. Read More

Filed under: English Channel | Interwar
Subjects include: Whaling & Fishing

Brixham Sailing Trawlers: the Last Years of a Working Fleet

By P. A. B. Thomson

Sailing trawlers were already being replaced by steam powered trawlers during the first decade of the twentieth century but the main turning point for the Brixham sailing trawlers came with WW1 and its aftermath.  Several were sunk by enemy action and many of those laid up for the duration never sailed again.  Sailing trawlers were […] Read More

Filed under: WW1 | Interwar | North Sea | Irish Sea | Other (Nineteenth C)
Subjects include: Leisure & Small Craft | Submarines | Whaling & Fishing

Bible Classes and Boats: Church and Chapel Rowing Clubs at Plymouth and Devonport in the Early Twentieth Century

By Janet Cusack

Between 1900 and the beginning of World War II, a number of churches and chapels in Plymouth and Devonport sponsored rowing clubs.  The combination of a large, relatively sheltered venue and ready availability of surplus boats from the Royal Naval Dockyard combined to provide this unique social activity for members of the congregations and their […] Read More

Filed under: English Channel | Interwar | Other (Twentieth C)
Subjects include: Harbours & Dockyards | Leisure & Small Craft

A Breakdown in Communications: Britain’s Over Estimation of Asdic’s Capabilities in the 1930s

By G. D. Franklin

The submarine detection weapon, ASDIC, was developed prior to the end of WW1. Work continued throughout the interwar period, involving scientific research and tactical trials in the English Channel. By the beginning of WW2 confidence in ASDIC’s ability to detect dived submarines was very high but over optimism was quickly dispelled by the realities of […] Read More

Filed under: Atlantic | English Channel | Interwar
Subjects include: Weapons

Great Britain’s Maritime Strength and the British Merchant Marine, 1922-1935

By Greg C. Kennedy

Britain’s post-war excess shipping was sold off, whereas the American government maintained its larger tonnage. This surplus depressed freight rates. The US passed restrictive legislation to retain trade, with angry responses from British shipowners. Both nations objected to assistance offered by the other: Admiralty loans versus the American Merchant Marine Act of 1928. However, much […] Read More

Filed under: Interwar
Subjects include: Administration | Merchant Marines

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