Archive Results For: The Armada

Document: Queen Elizabeth’s Instruction to Admiral Howard, 20 December 1587

By courtesy of Geoffrey Parker

An introduction to this transcript of the original instruction written by Queen Elizabeth I, provides a brief review of interpretations of the document and raises concerns how it has been misinterpreted, as the whole document was not read and reviewed. The document shows Elizabeth’s understanding of the need to have flexibility of approach to maritime […] Read More

Filed under: English Channel | The Armada | North Sea
Subjects include: Battles & Tactics | Navies

Document: Anatomy of Defeat: the Testimony of Juan Martínez de Recalde and Don Alonso Martínez de Leyva on the Failure of the Spanish Armada in 1588

By courtesy of Geoffrey Parker

The ‘papeles curiosos’ include a dossier sent to Don Martín de Idiáquez by his relative Juan Martínez de Recalde, second-in-command of the Spanish Armada. The dossier constitutes the political testament of the Armada’s two most senior fighting officers. It reveals for the first time, over four centuries later, what, and who, they thought had caused […] Read More

Filed under: Tudors | The Armada | Other (location)
Subjects include: Navies

Henry Seckford: Sixteenth Century Merchant, Courtier and Privateer

By Susan Maxwell

Henry Seckford was a vigorous, thrusting and quite ruthless merchant and businessman, always seeking the best route to personal profit whilst at the same time serving others. Henry Seckford was hedging his bets too. From the evidence it seems he turned from the Spanish wine trade to more speculative ventures in less sure markets – […] Read More

Filed under: Atlantic | Tudors | English Channel | The Armada | Pacific | East India Company | Other (location)
Subjects include: Merchant Marines | Navies | Pirates, Corsairs & Privateers | Science & Exploration | Strategy & Diplomacy

The Development of Broadside Gunnery 1450-1650

By N.A.M. Rodger

The article criticises several assumptions by later British historians such as Sir Julian Corbett about the origins of the heavy-gunned ‘broadside’ vessel and associated English battle tactics especially during the Spanish Armada campaign. Many guns were considered ‘fixed’, the ship was aimed. English carriages allowed for transverse positioning though the number of actual gunners remained […] Read More

Filed under: Atlantic | Tudors | English Channel | The Armada
Subjects include: Battles & Tactics | Navies | Weapons

The Dreadnought Revolution of Tudor England

By Geoffrey Parker

The author asks how the Royal Navy developed different types of capital warships and tactics which defeated the Spanish Armada. Utilising detailed charts, graphs and appendices, four main reasons are cited: ‘race-built’ designs, concentration of heavy guns aboard ship, superior rate-of-fire and handling of ordnance, and reliable long-term funding from the English crown. Dreadnought, launched […] Read More

Filed under: Atlantic | Tudors | English Channel | The Armada
Subjects include: Battles & Tactics | Navies | Weapons

Note: The Spanish Armada

By John de Courcy Ireland

Despite the flurry of research which accompanied the fourth centenary, the points still outstanding range from the essential role of Portugal and the Portuguese, the part played by Medina Sidonia, the international nature of the expedition and the situation in Ireland in 1588. Read More

Filed under: English Channel | The Armada | North Sea
Subjects include: Battles & Tactics | Navies | Strategy & Diplomacy

Note: The Armada Fight 400 Years On

By A.P.McGowan

An account of the centenary celebrations in 1888 leads on to the corrections now made to the contemporary myths and legends. Read More

Filed under: Tudors | English Channel | The Armada
Subjects include: Battles & Tactics | Strategy & Diplomacy

The Sinews of War: Manning and Provisioning English Fighting Ships c.1550-1650

By G. V. Scammell

This article surveys the methods of recruitment of complements for both royal and private fighting ships and their provisioning. It demonstrates how inadequacies and problems reflected the administrative and political fragility of the early modern state. While, on the one hand, wars drained resources and threatened regimes, they also stimulated the growth and development of […] Read More

Filed under: Tudors | Francis Drake | Dutch Wars | The Armada | Mutiny & Discipline | Health at Sea | Press Gangs
Subjects include: Administration | Manpower & Life at Sea | Navies | Pirates, Corsairs & Privateers

Note: Spanish Armada Prisoners’ Escape from Ireland

By David Quin

A document revealing the escape of thirty Spaniards from their English captors in Ireland. Read More

Filed under: Atlantic | Tudors | The Armada
Subjects include: Miscellaneous

Note: Ragusa and the Spanish Armada

By Peter Pierson

The link between Ragusa and Spain is examined, and evidence given for the numerous vessels from Ragusa employed by the Spanish. Read More

Filed under: The Armada | Other (Early Modern) | Mediterranean
Subjects include: Navies | Strategy & Diplomacy

Filter By Subject

Reset