Archive Results For: The Armada

A Commander for the Armada

By Peter O'Malley Pierson

This paper explores the reasons for the appointment of the Duke of Medina Sidonia to command the Spanish Armada by Philip II following the death of Santa Cruz. Using a number of contemporary and historical sources the author discusses the complex layers of Spanish aristocracy and the way that titles were earned. The paper includes […] Read More

Filed under: Tudors | English Channel | The Armada
Subjects include: Navies

Drake’s Navigational Skills

By Richard Boulind

Sir Francis Drake’s acquisition of cartography, navigation and cosmography skills began in earnest during his first independent voyage to the Isthmus of Panama (1572-3). Subsequent events including numerous raids against Spanish trade in the Indies, the Armada and the circumnavigation of the world provided Drake with the opportunity to establish his reputation as England’s greatest […] Read More

Filed under: Atlantic | Tudors | Francis Drake | The Armada | Caribbean
Subjects include: Biography | Navies | Science & Exploration

The Shape of the Ships that Defeated the Spanish Armada

By Tom Glasgow Jr.

During the latter half of the sixteenth century, it is apparent that the English shipbuilders were constantly experimenting, seeking the perfect shape for their ships. This article details the various attempts to identify the most efficient shape, and the success achieved, in particular with regard to the ships that fought against the Spanish Armada. Read More

Filed under: Tudors | English Channel | The Armada
Subjects include: Shipbuilding & Design

Galleon into Ship of the Line Part I

By Rear Admiral A. H. Taylor

This article traces the development of naval warfare and takes us from the end of the Elizabethan era to the conclusion of the First Dutch War. Little is known of the transition from the assortment of ships that fought the Armada to the balanced fleet of 1677. However, changes to technology and tactics drove the […] Read More

Filed under: Dutch Wars | English Channel | The Armada | North Sea
Subjects include: Battles & Tactics

The Most High-Spirited Man on Earth

By Michael Harrington

On the San Bernabe, the English admiral uttered, in Spanish ‘ Here die I, Richard Grenville, with a joyful and quiet mind…having ended my life as a true soldier ought to do, that fought for his country, Queen, religion and honour, whereby my soul most joyfully departeth…’ But those ‘traitors and dogs’ who surrendered must […] Read More

Filed under: Atlantic | Tudors | Francis Drake | English Channel | The Armada
Subjects include: Battles & Tactics | Biography | Manpower & Life at Sea | Navies | Weapons

Carrack into Galleon

By A. H. Taylor

The author discusses progressive developments in ship types, armaments and fighting tactics between 1509 and the Armada in 1588, in the political and mercantile context of the period. The large fighting forecastle of the Carrack fell out of favour with the introduction of larger guns and the transition from hand weapons leading to development of […] Read More

Filed under: Atlantic | Tudors | Francis Drake | English Channel | The Armada
Subjects include: Battles & Tactics | Pirates, Corsairs & Privateers | Weapons

Wars by Sea and Land 1588 – 1592

By J F Ruthven

Tenison was a member of SNR and the many volumes of Elizabethan England were reviewed in Mariner’s Mirrors as each was published. This article is a review of Volume 8 and a good description is given of the painstaking research that Tenison carried out using contemporary sources and often rewriting our knowledge and understanding of […] Read More

Filed under: Tudors | Francis Drake | The Armada | Other (location)
Subjects include: Miscellaneous | Navies | Strategy & Diplomacy

The Elizabethan Navy and the Armada Campaign

By D. W. Waters R.N.

This review of the Armada Campaign assesses the resources and organisations of the combatants for war, the objects of their policies and the preparations they made to achieve them, as well as the course of the Armada actions in 1588. What had each side learned from recent events such as Hawkins’ action at San Juan […] Read More

Filed under: Tudors | English Channel | The Armada
Subjects include: Battles & Tactics | Navies | Ship Handling & Seamanship

Armada Guns: A Comparative Study of English and Spanish Armaments Part VIII Appendices

By Michael Lewis

The article contains further explanations for a few points addressed in the main article on the Armada guns: “The English, Spanish and Italian pound in 1588”, “The musket in 1588” and “The missing guns of the N.S. Del Rosario and San Salvador”, a question that arises from discrepancies in the numbers of Spanish guns captured […] Read More

Filed under: Tudors | English Channel | The Armada
Subjects include: Navies | Weapons

Armada Guns: A Comparative Study of English and Spanish Armaments Part VII The Lessons of the Armada Fight

By Michael Lewis

This is the seventh article in a series on the armaments in use by both English and Spanish navies in 1588. The conclusion is that the artillery on neither side was effective. The English guns fired shot that was too light to penetrate Spanish ships except at extreme short range and the heavier shotted Spanish […] Read More

Filed under: Tudors | Francis Drake | English Channel | The Armada
Subjects include: Battles & Tactics | Navies | Weapons

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