Currency and Bullion Carried by Ships of the VOC (Vereenigte Oostindische Companie): their Routes, Numismatic Patterns and Precursors

By G.B. Elliott, published August 1989


The article provides an in depth analysis of how the Vereenigte Oostindische Companie of Amsterdam, was organised by the Heeren 17 during the 17th and 18th centuries to control their vast trading empire stretching from Africa through the Indian and Pacific Oceans to China and Japan and based in Batavia (Djakarta). It describes how the Dutch had “superseded” the Portuguese, allocated routes, regulated the complex trading operations and finances, and determined, minted and transported the bullion and currency required for trading, explaining how the Reale, dominant for so long, was gradually replaced by other coinage.

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Filed under: Other (Early Modern) | Other (Eighteenth C) | Indian Ocean | Pacific
Subjects include: Administration | Logistics | Merchant Marines

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