The China War 1857, river view with tower, fort, three masted vessel and junk (1857)
This painting, showing a calm scene on the Canton River after the War of 1857, is one of nine watercolours made during the China War by Thomas Goldsworthy Dutton and the third of the collection already published in our Online Art Archive.
Born in Hackney, Dutton went on to become one of the most famous lithographers of the nineteenth century for his exceptional nautical scenes and portraits. Although his work as a watercolorist is less well-known he was very talented and his work provides some important evidence for the nineteenth century.
The National Maritime Museum has an almost complete collection of his published lithographs. His original artwork is far more rare and this collection was purchased for the museum with financial assistance from the Society for Nautical Research in 1987.
The collection, presented to the National Maritime Museum on 27 April 1987, the fiftieth anniversary of its opening, descended through the family of the Hon Albert Denison Somerville Denison (1835-1903), second son of the first Lord Londesborough, who served as second mate and subsequently acting lieutenant on the sloop Hornet 1856-9 and briefly as acting lieutenant on Sir Michael Seymour’s flagship HMS Calcutta. During this period Denison was involved in the fighting in the approaches to Canton in January 1857, when he was wounded, and in the attack on the Chinese war junks on 1 June 1857, both of which feature in this collection of watercolours.
This set of watercolours does not appear to relate to any lithographs by Dutton and so is likely to have been commissioned by Denison in the early 1860s, and were perhaps based on Denison’s sketches made on the spot.
All of these watercolours are in particularly beautiful condition, having never been framed or hung.
As the effects of the Industrial Revolution were felt keenly in China. The Chinese Empire had not been challenged by its immediate neighbours for centuries. Traders were despised and all those beyond its borders were seen as barbarians, who owed allegiance and tribute to the Son of Heaven who ruled the world from Peking. In the eyes of the Emperor, moreover, the Chinese were confident in their self-sufficiency. The West needed tea and china, but the Chinese needed nothing in return. Britain, however, was still anxious to improve her trading rights secured after the First China War, at the Treaty of Nanking almost a decade earlier in 1842. The end of the Crimean War freed up ships in 1856 to be sent to Honk Kong to secure British aims with a show of force.
The fighting was particularly testing as the Chinese kept their forces out of reach in inland waterways and creeks, protected by shoal water, booms and fire rafts. With a draught of only three feet the Chinese junks were ideal for this type of warfare. As is illustrated in this watercolour, the Chinese ships were always well-positioned and any attack had to be made in open boats across an open stretch of water, with the junks waiting with 32-pounder cannon in their bows and ‘stink-pots’ at their mastheads which showered burning sulphur on boarders. The air was also filled with the sound of thousands of gongs beaten furiously to instil fear in the attackers’ hearts. After a number of fierce battles the war ended with the sacking of the Emperor’s Summer Palace and the Manchu dynasty in tatters.
The Society has published a number of articles on the Opium Wars in the Mariner’s Mirror.