Meteorology in the Byzantine Navy
The second and third texts derived from a common manuscript Venet, published in the early years of the twentieth century by the great Greek Byzantinist Spyridon Lambros, have a common subject. They both expand the meteorological systems used in two of the most important Byzantine naval commands. Whilst Lambros attempted to date the documents on internal evidence, fixing a terminus post quem in the early eighth century and a terminus ante quem, late in the eleventh, modern scholars ascribe both documents to the ninth and tenth centuries. They contain detailed meteorological observations of the seasons and stars and were used by master mariners, naval and military commanders in their campaigning seasons.