The Naval Threat on the Western Flank of Operation Neptune, June 1944
A consideration of German naval resistance to the D-day landings mounted by the Allied forces in June 1944, a subject that the author considers to be overshadowed by the wealth of published material on the amphibious operations and the subsequent military campaign. Attention is first given to the actual threat, this in the form of destroyers, torpedo boats, E-boats and U-boats; the major warships of the German surface fleet viewed at the time as being unable to penetrate the Channel from their northern bases due to allied domination of the air. German plans for use of their forces to disrupt the invasion and Allied plans for countering the perceived German naval threat are examined as are the clashes that took place in the Channel between the two forces. The author has little doubt that the light forces of the German navy had the potential to exercise an influence on the outcome of the Allied invasion and that they fought with tenacity in the face of overwhelming odds.