The Navy in the French Wars of Mary and Elizabeth: Part II First Elizabethan Undeclared War, 1559 – 1560
French troops in Scotland enforcing Catholicism and promoting the claim of Mary Queen of Scots to the English throne, forced Elizabeth I to agree to an unofficial naval expedition to neutralize and remove those forces. Admiral William Winter expertly and successfully led the expedition that neutralized the French land campaign by capturing its supplies held in a squadron off Dysart and blockading the Firth of Forth, a campaign unusually commenced in the winter. Under the Treaty of Edinburgh, the French were evicted from Scotland escorted by the British squadron. The performance of the naval administration, personnel and ships of the Royal Navy demonstrated its usefulness and led to its perpetuation in the new reign.