Seamen Ashore and Afloat: the Social Environment of the Carreira da India, 1550-1750

By A.J.R. Russell-Wood, published February 1983


The social environment under which the Carreira da India operated over a 350 year period remained largely unaltered. The qualities both of seamanship and leadership afloat remained poor throughout. Equally the environment for the mariner at ports of call was hazardous to health and well-being as well as being depressing. There was a lack of social unity aboard accentuated by divisions in social class. This caused tensions to arise especially in the case of shipwreck when survival became paramount and accepted social norms were tested to the limit.

Join Today To Read The Full Article

Filed under: Atlantic | Other (Early Modern) | Indian Ocean | Health at Sea
Subjects include: Manpower & Life at Sea | Merchant Marines

Join Today To Read The Full Article

Join Now

If you are already a member please login here.