Signal Code of the Galleys of Malta
From the early eighteenth century, the Order of Malta had squadrons of galleys, galleots and brigs but there is no evidence that they adopted a Kempenfelt-type signal code. The Captain General could convey eighty different orders with flags, pennants, smoke, rockets, lanterns, sail movements and gunfire. There are two code books in existence, the 1719 Olgiati copy of /Ordini e Segni Navali delle Galere/ and the less well-known Chevalier Roger de Giorgio’s Code, probably written in 1742 by an Italian speaking Frenchman. The translated Olgiati code provides day, night, battle and special order signals in eighty-six articles.