The Ballasting of the Twentieth Century Deepwater Square Rigger
Based on primary and verbal evidence from the great vessels of the Erikson and Laisz fleets, this article describes the different ballasting arrangements provided for these ships. The vessels needed different amounts of ballast, depending of whether they were in harbour, being towed in port, for coastal voyages and for longer journeys. Ballast had to be properly secured, and the article describes the idiosyncracies of each. For instance, if sand was the only local commodity it had to be carefully packaged in wooden boxes which could be lashed down. Water ballast had its own difficulties.