The Elizabethan Navy and the Armada Campaign
This review of the Armada Campaign assesses the resources and organisations of the combatants for war, the objects of their policies and the preparations they made to achieve them, as well as the course of the Armada actions in 1588. What had each side learned from recent events such as Hawkins’ action at San Juan de Uloa in 1568 and the Franco-Spanish battle in the Azores in 1582? Both fleets had learned lessons and prepared for the campaign. Success came down to the sailing power of the English ships and the skill of the seamen who worked them.