Author Results for James Hornell

The Sources of the Clinker and Carvel Systems in British Boat Construction

By James Hornell

The author attributes the once widespread clinker (or clincher) approach to the influence of Scandinavian boat builders, particularly the Vikings. The carvel system in which planks are butted together rather than overlapped, originated in the Mediterranean and was adopted in Britain in the time of Drake. The superior strength of carvel-built vessels eventually made this […] Read More

Filed under: Tudors | Early Middle Ages | Late Middle Ages | English Channel | High Middle Ages | North Sea | Irish Sea
Subjects include: Leisure & Small Craft | Shipbuilding & Design | Whaling & Fishing

The Making and Spreading of Dugout Canoes

By James Hornell

The task of hollowing a stout log to make a dugout canoe is best accomplished by means of a tool which has been in use since the times of Ancient Egypt: the adze. With this tool a dugout canoe may be hewn out of a log, a tedious task which can be facilitated if the […] Read More

Filed under: Antiquity | Other (location)
Subjects include: Leisure & Small Craft | Shipbuilding & Design

The Boats of Lake Menzala, Egypt

By James Hornell

Lake Menzala is a large, shallow backwater lagoon along the seaward margin of the Nile Delta.  Two types of shallow draft small sailing vessels are described, one which carried only cargo and one had accommodations for passengers as well.  The vessels are described as a skimming-dish type typically 12’ to 14’ in length, 5 ½’ […] Read More

Filed under: Interwar | Mediterranean
Subjects include: Leisure & Small Craft

The Sailing Craft of Western India

By James Hornell

1920s record of coastal, wooden built fishing and trade vessels of western India, from Baluchistan, Bombay, to Malabar. Influences on design range from the Arab to the Portuguese and Indonesian. Designs are listed. The sailing rig was primarily lateen, some included a bowsprit, and mizzen. Seven plates show a range of vessels in use. Read More

Filed under: Indian Ocean
Subjects include: Leisure & Small Craft | Shipbuilding & Design

The Pearling Fleets of South India and Ceylon

By James Hornell

Pearl divers in the Gulf of Manner has been described many times however little attention has been given to the boats used. This article aims to correct this omission. The author details many of the different types of boats involved in the industry from dugout canoes, Kilakarai outrigger canoes, balance-board canoes to large Tuticorin lighters […] Read More

Filed under: Other (Twentieth C) | Indian Ocean
Subjects include: Shipbuilding & Design | Whaling & Fishing

The Outrigger Canoes of Madagascar, East Africa and the Comoro Islands Part II

By James Hornell

In this paper, James Hornell quotes the existing bibliography and develops his previous notes on this kind of craft. He mentions the origin and influence of Indonesian types on Madagascar ones, since the island was colonized by southeast Asiatic tribes in the first millennium of Christian era. He is not clear if the canoes arrived […] Read More

Filed under: Other (Twentieth C) | Indian Ocean
Subjects include: Leisure & Small Craft | Shipbuilding & Design

The Outrigger Canoes of Madagascar, East Africa, and the Comoro Islands Part I

By James Hornell

The article considers in detail the design and use of canoes in all three locations separately before making comparisons and constructing generalizations. The deployment of primitive sails is described, and throughout, diagrams and a number of photographs are used to make the author’s points. Explanation of the effects of coastal geography on design is given. […] Read More

Filed under: Interwar | Indian Ocean
Subjects include: Shipbuilding & Design

The Fishing and Coastal Craft of Ceylon

By James Hornell

Hornell describes in detail the outrigger canoe, which dominated the coastal trade, and the riverine and inland waterway dugout canoe. This coasting craft had been in use for a considerable length of time and suited its work perfectly. The outrigger was fixed to one side only, to counter the wind acting on the sail, therefore […] Read More

Filed under: Other (Twentieth C) | Indian Ocean | Internal Waterways
Subjects include: Ship Handling & Seamanship | Shipbuilding & Design | Whaling & Fishing

A Tentative Definition of Arab Sea Craft

By James Hornell

Hornell attempts to create order and a basis for future classification of this previously chaotic and confusing genre of craft. His two primary Classes are the Square Sterned Vessels comprising the Baghla,Ganja,Samuk,Saiyeh,Jehazi, Mashwa or Machwa, and Jalbuti, and the Double –ended Vessels comprising the Bum, Zaruk, Budani,Hori,and Ballam. Photographs of both classes are present. A […] Read More

Filed under: Interwar | High Middle Ages | Other (Early Modern) | Other (Nineteenth C) | Indian Ocean | Other (location)
Subjects include: Leisure & Small Craft | Shipbuilding & Design | Whaling & Fishing

The Sea-Going Mtepe and Dáu of the Lamu Archipelago

By James Hornell

The article looks at two distinct squared rigged boats, built and used by the people of the Lamu Archipelago, which is now part of NE Kenya. The building techniques are explored and a description of the goods they carried, as well as their destinations across the Indian Ocean, is given. Drawings are provided as well […] Read More

Filed under: Other (Twentieth C) | Other (Nineteenth C) | Indian Ocean
Subjects include: Leisure & Small Craft | Shipbuilding & Design

The Frameless Boats of the Middle Nile, Part II

By James Hornell

This is Part Two of an article concerning the various types of frameless boat found on the river Nile in Egypt (see MM 25:4 for Part One). Read More

Filed under: Other (Twentieth C) | Internal Waterways
Subjects include: Leisure & Small Craft | Shipbuilding & Design

The Frameless Boats of the Middle Nile Part I

By James Hornell

This is a very detailed description of the construction of a number of types of frameless boats of the Nile, built since early up to modern times, giving details of materials, methods, designs, hulls, rigging, sails and oars, outriggers, decorations, etc., together with a note of the builders themselves and some illustrations. Read More

Filed under: Antiquity | Mediterranean
Subjects include: Leisure & Small Craft | Shipbuilding & Design

The Fishing Luggers of Hastings Part II

By James Hornell

Following the historical review of fishing boats at Hastings and their construction and rigging methods in Part I, Part II describes the working techniques of remaining Hastings fishing luggers in 1938, both under sail and engine. Methods and equipment for beaching and launching boats to and from a steeply shelving pebble beach are described, including […] Read More

Filed under: Napoleonic War | English Channel | Interwar | Other (Early Modern) | Other (Twentieth C) | Other (Eighteenth C)
Subjects include: Miscellaneous | Ship Handling & Seamanship | Whaling & Fishing

The Fishing Luggers of Hastings Part I

By James Hornell

The three-masted lug rig appears to have originated in the French auxiliary navy. It also became a favourite with the northern French fishermen and thereby familiar to the coast folk of southern England, who were quick to realize its value and to adapt it to their local requirements. The three masted lugger, thus acquired, remained […] Read More

Filed under: Napoleonic War | English Channel | Interwar | Other (Early Modern) | Other (Twentieth C) | Other (Nineteenth C) | Other (Eighteenth C)
Subjects include: Harbours & Dockyards | Historic Vessels, Museums & Restoration | Navies | Pirates, Corsairs & Privateers | Ship Handling & Seamanship | Whaling & Fishing

The Coracles of the Tigris and Euphrates

By James Hornell

The article describes the coracles used on the inland waterways of Iraq called quffah. Detail is given of the method of construction, their use and the different sizes, some big enough to transport 3 horses and several men. The method of propulsion is discussed. The author considers similar vessels in antiquity described by writers such […] Read More

Filed under: Antiquity | Other (Early Modern) | Other (Twentieth C) | Other (Nineteenth C) | Other (Eighteenth C) | Internal Waterways
Subjects include: Leisure & Small Craft | Shipbuilding & Design

The Curraghs of Ireland Part III

By James Hornell

This describes the curraghs from counties Sligo and Mayo. Regarding the later county, it is stated that this traditional boat survived in small fishing harbours, and was different from the other Irish curraghs in that the bottom and sides were completely covered with thin planking. Two different designs were also found in county Mayo, one […] Read More

Filed under: Atlantic | Irish Sea | Other (Twentieth C) | Internal Waterways
Subjects include: Leisure & Small Craft | Whaling & Fishing

The Curraghs of Ireland Part II

By James Hornell

Based on the Gaelic ‘curach’ these vessels comprised all forms of hide-covered wicker craft in Irish waters. Shipbuilding techniques are discussed; as trading interests expanded beyond the rivers and shoreline longer vessels with stronger longitudinal support were developed. Various designs “may be said to recapitulate the past history of the Curragh” up until the present […] Read More

Filed under: Atlantic | Irish Sea | Other (Twentieth C) | Other (Nineteenth C) | Other (Eighteenth C) | Internal Waterways
Subjects include: Shipbuilding & Design | Whaling & Fishing

The Sirius: the First Steamer to Cross the Atlantic

By James Hornell

The voyage was made in 1838 partly as a result of a paper given at the British Association for the Advancement of Science in 1836 which had declared such a feat impossible. The eighteen day outward voyage is described through contemporary documents, including the ship’s log and the public interest and outcomes are described through […] Read More

Filed under: Atlantic | Other (Nineteenth C) | Shipwrecks
Subjects include: Miscellaneous | Shipbuilding & Design

The Curraghs of Ireland Part I

By James Hornell

An initial discussion of the etymology of the name is followed by a literature survey which reveals a considerable mythological element. There is then an extended description of surviving curraghs, based on a field trip undertaken in 1936. Read More

Filed under: Atlantic | Antiquity | Irish Sea
Subjects include: Miscellaneous | Shipbuilding & Design

British Coracles Part II

By James Hornell

The article continues the description of the construction and use of coracles in Britain that could be found “until a few decades ago”. It covers the regions of the Ure, the Wye, the Severn, North Wales, the Upper and Lower Dee and Scotland. Dimensions and construction drafts are included as well as pictures of examples […] Read More

Filed under: Atlantic | Irish Sea | Other (Nineteenth C) | Internal Waterways
Subjects include: Shipbuilding & Design

British Coracles Part I

By James Hornell

Following a brief history of skin-covered boats, with the earliest records of such vessels in Britain dating from the time of the Romans, Hornell then proceeds to record the differences between the various coracles found on British waters. At the time of writing such small boats were most frequently to be found on Welsh rivers […] Read More

Filed under: Popular Topics | Other (Twentieth C) | Other (location)
Subjects include: Leisure & Small Craft | Whaling & Fishing

Constructional Parallels In Scandinavian and Oceanic Boat Construction

By James Hornell

An examination of the similarities (parallels) in early boats built, both in antiquity and modern times, on opposite sides of the world.    The widespread use of the sewn plank and lashed rib construction system is considered along with the vexed question of “independent invention” or “cultural diffusion”.    A rather long bow is drawn regarding diffusion […] Read More

Filed under: Prehistory | Baltic | Pacific
Subjects include: Archaeology | Shipbuilding & Design

Log of the Schooner Ada on a Fishing Cruise in the North Pacific, 1882

By James Hornell

In 1882 George Mansbridge and his friends chartered a British fore and aft rigged schooner of 40-50 tons for a six month fishing cruise in the North Pacific during her off season from sea otter hunting. The narrative log here set out was given by Mansbridge to his friend Capt. Cribb, Master of a Japanese […] Read More

Filed under: Other (Nineteenth C) | Pacific
Subjects include: Manpower & Life at Sea | Whaling & Fishing

South American Balsas: The Problem of their Origin

By James Hornell

The article describes a ‘balsa’ wood “tied upon the outer side of each gunwale” of dug-out canoes. When and where were they first used; the first double outriggers? 19th-century European accounts exist of logs used in this way, along with the early modern experience of Spanish imperial explorers across the Pacific and from Central to […] Read More

Filed under: Atlantic | Prehistory | Pacific
Subjects include: Shipbuilding & Design

The Tongue and Groove Seam of Gujarati Boatbuilders

By James Hornell

Hornell explains the unique construction method used by the shipwrights of the Gujarat coast to ensure the water-tightness of the hulls being built. Two handmade ‘V’ shaped grooves and tongues are cut into the longitudinal edges of each plank prior to fitting to the frames. Before attachment the upper edge of the lower plank is […] Read More

Filed under: Other (Twentieth C) | Indian Ocean
Subjects include: Shipbuilding & Design

The Kru Canoes of Sierra Leone

By James Hornell

During a visit to Sierra Leone the author observed several types of canoes used in rivers and estuaries which he classified into two different models of dugouts: the type without ribs or thwarts, whose aft is not pointed as usual, but truncated, and crewed by one to six men, being the larger ones, called Bonga […] Read More

Filed under: Atlantic | Other (Twentieth C)
Subjects include: Shipbuilding & Design | Whaling & Fishing

Edye’s Account of Indian and Ceylon Vessels in 1833

By James Hornell

John Edye’s 1833 article details various types of coasting vessels used on the coasts of Coromandel, Malabar and Ceylon. Fifteen vessels were described; the first nine accompanied by sketches, the remainder by builders’ plans. The author, the late Director of Fisheries, Madras, reviews acerbically the information and concludes that Edye’s paper is of very unequal […] Read More

Filed under: Other (Nineteenth C) | Indian Ocean
Subjects include: Leisure & Small Craft | Manpower & Life at Sea | Merchant Marines | Ship Handling & Seamanship | Whaling & Fishing