Author Results for Julian de Zulueta

Note: The Battle of Cape Santa Maria 5 October 1804

By Julian de Zulueta

This note gives the Spanish version of this battle, little documented in English.  Four English frigates intercepted and overcame four Spanish vessels carrying treasure back to Spain.  The treasure had subsequently been retrieved by Odyssey Marine Exploration. Read More

Filed under: Atlantic | Other (Nineteenth C)
Subjects include: Battles & Tactics | Navies

The Final Sacrifice off Cape Trafalgar

By Julian de Zulueta

This article is a deeply personal account of the battle from a widely respected scholar. He lays the responsibiity for the tragedy of Trafalgar at Napoleon’s door, detailing his design for the great enterprise and the extent to which Napoleon underestimated his own fallibility. The article details the strength, design and speed of the Spanish […] Read More

Filed under: Nelson | Atlantic | Napoleonic War
Subjects include: Battles & Tactics | Navies | Strategy & Diplomacy

The Basque Whalers: the Source of their Success

By Julian de Zulueta

Expert inshore whale hunters since the eleventh century, the Basques eventually had to seek their quarry further afield. For much of the sixteenth century they played the leading role in cod fishing and whaling in the waters of Newfoundland and Labrador. Their success is attributed to the sturdiness of their Biscayan ships, a well-organized system […] Read More

Filed under: Atlantic | Other (Early Modern) | Health at Sea
Subjects include: Science & Exploration | Whaling & Fishing

Health and Military Factors in Vernon’s Failure at Cartagena 1741

By Julian de Zulueta

The author argues that although there were clear factors such as the prevalence of disease, inexperience of the Army Commander and poor co-operation between sea and land forces, this failure may owe more to Vernon’s command misjudgements of the strength of Spanish defences and attack focus than previously considered. Here the successful assault through Boca […] Read More

Filed under: Austrian Succession | Caribbean
Subjects include: Battles & Tactics | Manpower & Life at Sea

Trafalgar – the Spanish View

By Julian de Zulueta

This article centres on Admiral Don Federico Gravina and begins with his opinions on the superiority of English carriages and gun locks before examining the waning of the Spanish fleet, finally concentrating on the preliminaries and action at Trafalgar. He is revealed as a trusted partner of Villeneuve and Buonaparte yet one fully cognizant of […] Read More

Filed under: Nelson | Atlantic | Napoleonic War
Subjects include: Battles & Tactics | Weapons