Author Results for L. G. Carr Laughton

Note: The Cog

By L. G. Carr Laughton

This Note summarizes what we know about features of the ship type known as the cog, from its origins as a coaster and as a tender to bigger ships, to its growth in size as voyages grew longer and its roles became more diverse, both in peace and in war. The particular qualities that made […] Read More

Filed under: Atlantic | Late Middle Ages | Baltic | High Middle Ages | North Sea
Subjects include: Merchant Marines | Navies | Shipbuilding & Design

Hull Protection

By L. G. Carr Laughton

Laughton argues that the fact that so few wooden warships sank as a result of gunfire in the age of sail was the result of a conscious decision to improve hull resistance to shot, starting with ‘blistering’ in the early sixteenth century. Read More

Filed under: Other (Early Modern) | Other (location)
Subjects include: Navies | Shipbuilding & Design | Weapons

The Royal Sovereign, 1685

By L. G. Carr Laughton

Carr Laughton follows up a piece in an earlier MM in his attempt to ascertain whether the Royal Sovereign was remodelled during her ‘large repairs’ of 1651, 1659-60 and 1684-5. Having compared the surveyed dimensions of the Sovereign during her career he concluded that, although virtually renewed following the last repair, she retained the same […] Read More

Filed under: Dutch Wars | Other (location)
Subjects include: Administration | Navies | Shipbuilding & Design

The Society Annual Lecture 1931: The Henry Grace Dieu

By L. G. Carr Laughton

This was the Society’s first of what became the official Annual Lecture and followed the previous year’s successful, informal gathering. Carr Laughton’s lecture was based on research undertaken in the official documents stored within the Public Records Office (now the National Archive) relating to the construction of the Henry Grace Dieu. From his findings he […] Read More

Filed under: Tudors | Other (location)
Subjects include: Administration | Navies | Shipbuilding & Design

Gunnery, Frigates and the Line of Battle

By L. G. Carr Laughton

Developments in the practice of naval gunnery between the early 16th century and mid 18th century are discussed, with related changes in tactics leading to the establishment of the line of battle. The importance is emphasised of the change from loading out board to allowing the guns to recoil and loading in board improving crew […] Read More

Filed under: Other (Early Modern) | Other (Eighteenth C) | Other (location)
Subjects include: Battles & Tactics | Shipbuilding & Design | Weapons

“Capital Ship”

By L. G. Carr Laughton

This paper considers the evolution of the term ‘capital ship’ from the First Dutch War of 1652, when English ships were first divided into different ‘rates’, to when the usage became common during the Napoleonic Wars. Prior to the classification of ships into rates, all types of ship were defined as ‘men of war’ and […] Read More

Filed under: Other (Early Modern) | Other (Nineteenth C) | Other (Eighteenth C) | Other (location)
Subjects include: Administration | Navies

Dictionary of the Sea Language

By L. G. Carr Laughton

Carr Laughton updates members on the research undertaken in his quest to create a Dictionary of the Sea Language. He lists the numerous publications he had consulted in his search for new entries to the dictionary and highlighted sources which produced useful examples but did not warrant inclusion in the bibliography. Read More

Filed under: Other (Twentieth C) | Other (location)
Subjects include: Miscellaneous

The Study of Ship Models

By L. G. Carr Laughton

Carr Laughton was concerned that although much had been written about historic ship models it was still extremely difficult to identify an unknown model or accurately place it within a precise class or period. The tools he felt necessary to accurately identify a model included, for example, building and gun establishments and details of the […] Read More

Filed under: Other (Early Modern) | Other (location)
Subjects include: Ship Models & Figureheads

The Writing of Naval History

By L. G. Carr Laughton

Carr Laughton elaborates on his view that at the time of writing, February1924, the recording of naval history was in need of a more methodical approach. The following quote by his father exemplifies the approach he advocated: “to trace the course of events to their origin, to distinguish the causes which have led to success […] Read More

Filed under: Other (Twentieth C) | Other (location)
Subjects include: Miscellaneous | Navies

John Cunningham’s Journal Part II

By L. G. Carr Laughton

In the previous part of this paper, H.M.S. Cambridge was sailing from Valparaiso to Callao. Once there, the newcomers could appreciate the rebellion of the troops against the governor, and the civil war in progress. The ship carried two consuls for the new republican government of Peru, but a counter-revolution put Lima and Callao in […] Read More

Filed under: Other (Nineteenth C) | Pacific
Subjects include: Battles & Tactics | Navies

John Cunningham’s Journal Part I

By L. G. Carr Laughton

John Cunningham was a surgeon in the Navy who write a Journal of 600 pages on board H.M.S. Cambridge, during a voyage to the West Coast of South America in 1824 and 1825. Presumably he would have published it, if Capt. Basil Hall had not forestalled him with a book printed early 1824. The interest […] Read More

Filed under: Atlantic | English Channel | North Sea | Other (Nineteenth C) | Other (Eighteenth C) | Pacific
Subjects include: Biography | Navies | Strategy & Diplomacy

The Rank of Commander R.N.

By L. G. Carr Laughton

Commanders were first appointed as executive officers in line-of-battle ships in 1872 but the rank goes back much further. The title was not new, as it evolved from the long-established Master and Commander which was formalised in 1674 but probably existed long before that date. Prior to 1827 Masters and Commanders had commanded the smaller […] Read More

Filed under: Other (Nineteenth C) | Other (Eighteenth C) | Other (location)
Subjects include: Administration | Manpower & Life at Sea | Navies

Shantying and Shanties Part I

By L. G. Carr Laughton

It is not uncommon for people to become interested in something, such as a custom, when it is, or is about to become, obsolete. Such a case is the shanty, the song of sea-labour, which crews of deep water sailing ships sang at their work. No collection of these songs was published until sailing ships, […] Read More

Filed under: Other (Nineteenth C) | Pirates | Other (location)
Subjects include: Art & Music | Ship Handling & Seamanship

The Preamble to the Articles of War

By L. G. Carr Laughton

The preamble to the 1866 Naval Discipline Act, which incorporates the Articles of War reads: “The Navy whereon, under the good Providence of God, the wealth, safety, and strength of the Kingdom chiefly depend”. This paper traces the different forms of words used to express the same sentiment in earlier Acts, starting in 1661. Other […] Read More

Filed under: Other (Early Modern) | Other (Nineteenth C) | Other (Eighteenth C) | Other (location)
Subjects include: Administration | Navies

Patience

By L. G. Carr Laughton

Patience is a middle English poem, religious in character and written in late 14th century. The work contains many technical terms describing the rig and rigging of ships. The authors view is that the translation of the terms into contemporary 20th century English has been inconsistent. The author attributes errors to the methodology used and […] Read More

Filed under: High Middle Ages | Other (location)
Subjects include: Art & Music

Auguste Jal

By L. G. Carr Laughton

Auguste Jal was a pioneer of the post-classical period, who laid the foundations of the study of nautical history of the Middle Ages. Jal joined the French Navy and was inspired to study the evolution of such ships by the majesty of a 74. He was systematic about his research, learning the obsolete sea terms […] Read More

Filed under: Other (Nineteenth C) | Other (location)
Subjects include: Archaeology | Biography | Historic Vessels, Museums & Restoration