Great Sea Fights: The Battle of Solebay, 1672

May 2022

Our Great Sea Fights series continues on the 350th anniversary of the Battle of Solebay, fought between the Dutch and the allied English and French off the eat coast of England, and one of the hardest-fought battles of the Age of Sail. To find out more Dr Sam Willis spoke with Dr David Davies, historian and author of the Journals of Matthew Quinton, a series of historical novels set in the seventeenth century navy.

This was a fascinating and important period of naval history when so much was still being learned about how to actually fight at sea in broadside-armed ships, and in particular in enormous fleets: in this battle the Dutch had 75 ships and over 20,000 men and they took on a combined fleet of 93 ships and over 34000 men – that’s 108 MORE ships than fought at the Battle of Trafalgar in 1805. It is also an unusual example of the English actually co-operating – or at least trying to – with the French.

The battle was fought during the third Anglo-Dutch war, a prolonged period of intense commercial rivalry between European powers which had begun some twenty years before hand with the First Anglo-Dutch war in 1652. By 1672 both sides had landed mighty blows but the Dutch and English engines of war that were producing ships and keeping them at sea was now working as well as it ever had, and to complicate matters the French now had a formidable fleet of their own.

  • View The Transcription

    Sam Willis
    From the Society for Nautical Research in partnership with Lloyd’s Register Foundation, I’m Sam Willis. And this is the Mariners Mirror podcast, the world’s number one podcast dedicated to all of maritime history. Hello everyone and welcome to the Mariners Mirror podcast. Today we have an important anniversary to celebrate, the 350th anniversary of the Battle of Solebay fought on this day in 1672. Before we begin, thank you username pirate hugh hum for your excellent review on iTunes; five stars, he writes, hold fast now and touch iron if this isn’t a fascinating series. I really enjoy that this covers all parts of maritime history, so much fun and well produced and fascinating. Thank you all involved, Great stuff. And if you are listening and are yet to rate or review us on iTunes, please do so. It makes a huge difference in other people being able to discover our podcast and I promise I will read it out. Now back to the Battle of Solebay. Well, it was fought between the Dutch on one side and the combined English and French on the other. So a very unusual example in English history of the English actually co-operating or at least trying to with the French; as you will hear it did not quite go as planned. Perhaps we should not be surprised. It was fought in a fascinating period in naval history when so much was still being learned about how to actually fight at sea in broadside armed ships. And in particular in enormous fleets. Listen to this, in this battle the Dutch had 75 ships, and they took on a combined fleet of 93 ships. So that’s 168 ships, which is 108 more ships than fought at the Battle of Trafalgar. Yes, that’s 108 more ships. It’s a period we should all know more about without any doubt, the beginnings of a professional Navy, the first steps taken as the line of battle emerged as a tactic. It was a full 84 years after the Spanish Armada, and yet it was 122 years before the French Revolution. It was fought during the third Anglo Dutch war, a prolonged period of intense commercial rivalry between European powers, which had begun some 20 years beforehand, with the first Anglo Dutch war in 1652. By 1672, both sides had landed some almighty blows where the engines of war that were producing ships and keeping them at sea were now working as well as they ever had. The Dutch in particular had achieved an astonishing success in the second Dutch war, when they had sailed up the Medway to Chatham dockyard, the most important dockyard in England, burned or captured three Capital ships and ten more ships of the line, and towed away the flagship of the English fleet, HMS Royal Charles. In this the third war, the picture has become somewhat complicated with the inclusion of the French with their new navy. To help unpick the story I spoke to David Davis, famed for many things, not least being the author of the excellent Matthew Quinton series of historical novels, eight of which have already been published, all set in the 17th century. David is also a naval historian of some renown, who has won many awards for his incisive and novel research. I’d personally recommend Britannia’s Dragon, a naval history of Wales. I should also say that David is also the Chairman of the Society for Nautical Research. But enough of these lengthy introductions. I hope you enjoy listening to him as much as I enjoyed talking with him. Here is the brilliant David Davis.

    Sam Willis
    David, thank you very much for joining me this morning.

    Sam Willis
    So the Battle of Solebay. I always think with the Anglo Dutch wars, this is the third Anglo Dutch war. And the first question you need to ask is what are the French up to? It doesn’t make sense unless you know what the French are doing.

    David Davies
    It’s a pleasure, Sam.

    David Davies
    Oh dear, no, that’s a very big can of worms. OK. Let’s start to unpick it because I mean, you know, with all battles you can’t cut them away from their context. And I think that’s particularly true of Solebay and the battles of the third Anglo Dutch war. What’s basically happened is of course you’ve had the Second War ending in 1667 very badly for the English and Charles the Second, because of course, you’ve had the humiliation of the Medway, the Royal Charles being towed away by the Dutch and so on. Now, what happens after that is there’s a short lived attempt to get an alliance with the Dutch, but there’s clearly a lot of mutual suspicion. Charles has a lot of desire for revenge in a sense after what’s happened at Chatham, and he is looking for an alliance with Louis the Fourteenth.They are of course cousins. Louis is also looking to strengthen his forces potentially. What Louis wants to do, and what Charles in a different way wants to do, is to have a final showdown with the Dutch. From Louis the Fourteenth’s point of view he hates them for being Protestant, for being a Republic. And they’ve also been prone to publishing some very unpleasant pamphlets about him; some very nasty images, suggesting he might be getting up to all sorts of naughty things have been produced in the Netherlands. So between them, Charles and Louis have all sorts of reasons for wanting to have a kind of a reckoning with the United Provinces or the Netherlands. And so what this leads to in 1670 is the notorious secret treaty of Dover, where the two of them make this deal by which they will both attack the Netherlands, the French taking the lead on land, the English by sea. And, of course, the most controversial part of the secret treaty of Dover is Charles’ promise that he will make England Catholic again. Now, whether he takes that seriously, whether he believes a word of it, has been debated by historians for getting on for 200 years. And there’s still no real conclusion about it, because Charles obviously played things very close to his chest throughout his life. But that is basically the background to it, that for their own reasons Louis and Charles come together in this arrangement, this deal, that they are both going to attack the Netherlands.

    Sam Willis
    How worried were the Netherlands here? I mean, it sounds like the French attacking you from land and the English attacking you from sea is really quite a formidable opponent to face.

    David Davies
    Yes, it is. I mean, obviously, it took them a while to realise how serious things were getting, they still had nominally their alliance with England, this was in theory a Triple Alliance with Sweden as well. And there was still lip service being paid to that. But they didn’t trust Charles. And why should they, nobody much did. And so by 1671 they are aware that something is afoot. And there are quite a lot of defensive precautions being put in place, they’re improving the defences, and so forth. But in a way, of course, they are going to have to be passive in this because they are up against far and away the greatest land power in Western Europe. Alright, they could challenge the English at sea, they’ve done it very successfully, very recently. But now of course, they’re facing the unknown quantity of a joint Anglo French fleet. And that is the unique thing about the third Dutch war and the Battle of Solebay within it, it is that for very few times, really in history you’ve got English and French combined forces, taking on a common enemy.

    Sam Willis
    Doesn’t sound like a very good idea. I wonder if they even understood each other?

    David Davies
    Well, this was agai something that they did think about from the very beginning. And Charles, who is of course extremely knowledgeable about all sorts of naval matters, does say quite early in this process, look, the French are potentially a risk because of course, the point is the French have no experience of doing anything like this, the English and the Dutch have plenty of experience. The French navy, to all intents and purposes didn’t exist 10 years earlier. It’s been built virtually from scratch by Louis’s Minister Colbert. And so the ships are superb, but they’re untested. And the officers and men are almost completely untested. So in the early days when they get the ships together and so on, yes, there are tremendous problems with manoeuvring errors and station keeping and all sorts of things. And what they’re hoping is that obviously the French will just learn on the job, that as they do with this, they will slowly get better as they learn from their English mentors.

    Sam Willis
    it’s interesting that they managed to create such an amazing Navy out of nothing much at all. Who did they turn to for the expertise?

    David Davies
    Well, of course, that’s the other interesting element of all this. They’re basically pinching technology and ideas from the English and the Dutch. I mean it’s fairly credible in our day and age, but of course, there’s really not much concept of security at the time. And so all nations send people who tour each other’s dockyards quite openly. They just go around, they’re often given tours, so this question of exchange of technology, there are people working on this now. And later on because it becomes much more difficult. But in this period, everybody is still quite open about what’s going on. So they have literally just been like Magpies, crabbing all their information from wherever they can.

    Sam Willis
    Yes, I suppose it’s not as bad as the 19th century, when the English were literally making warships for other countries.

    David Davies
    Yes, absolutely, yes.

    Sam Willis
    So let’s go to touch very briefly on Chatham, what happened on the raid of the Medway in the previous war? And look, we just talk about that briefly to give this a bit more context, and just how much the English were reeling from Dutch naval success?

    David Davies
    Well, I think Charles himself definitely was; this was a very personal thing for him. Obviously, there was the sense of national humiliation, you get that very well in the poetry of the period, for example, in the likes of Dryden, and so on. The point about Chatham of course, was that Charles and people who thought in the same way couched in terms of an invasion, as it was there a kind of a topical element. We could have here that, you know, one person’s invasion is another person’s special military operation. But as far as Charles is concerned, it was an invasion. You know, the Dutch flag had flown over Sheerness Fort, they’d come all the way up the Medway right into the waters of the dockyard. They destroyed several of his ships there. They towed away the Royal Charles and of course, he’d named it, he’d renamed it from the Naseby at the Restoration. It was named after his father and himself; the loss of that ship was hugely personal. And he does feel this and there’s even this bizarre scheme just before the third Dutch war starts to send out what’s effectively almost an SAS operation. To get the Royal Charles, which is still in Rotterdam being used to all intents and purposes as a floating pub. And to to bring it back to England, you know, that it is still so raw, it’s still so personal to Charles that he actually named the Commander for the operation and so on, and only cancels that at the last minute. So yes, Chatham, I think did run very deep and explains a lot about what’s going on in the third Dutch war.

    Sam Willis
    Let’s then think about who’s in charge of the Navies here or who’s a leading Commander, because the Dutch do have a bit of an ace up their sleeve, they’ve got Michiel de Ruyter. And he’s fantastic, isn’t he? Why does he have such a formidable reputation?

    David Davies
    Well, he’s had quite an interesting career, has had quite a long career in merchant ships, he has been, certainly all over the Atlantic world. There is even a rumour that he spoke a bit of Irish because of the time he’d spent in Ireland. And he had just been through the wars, initially against the Spanish in the 1640s. Then against the English in the 1650s and the 1660s. He had just developed this reputation as a very, very successful fighting Commander, because he had tremendous tactical skill. I think he’s got an awareness of broad strategy, which of course not all naval commanders do have. And he, by the late 1660’s, early 1670’s, has this great reputation. And of course, it’s greatly been enhanced by the fact that he is the man who commands the raid on the Medway. Now in the five or six, seven year old Dutch film about de Ruyter he actually leads it as a kind of a commando attack, you know, at night on the dockyard at Chatham itself. It’s turned into him who, swords drawn and raised, leading his men ashore; that’s not the case. But certainly in terms of the planning of the operation, it is very much down to him. So he is certainly regarded with huge respect by all parties at the start of the war.

    Sam Willis
    And what about on the English side, who’s in charge of the English navy?

    David Davies
    Well, in 1672 it’s James, Duke of York, who is the King’s younger brother, he’s the heir to the throne. And he’s the Lord High Admiral. He’s also a very, very experienced warrior. He’d commanded the fleet in

    David Davies
    1665 at the start of the second Dutch war, he’s commanded armies in the 1650s. Through a slightly bizarre set of circumstances, he even briefly had been the Lord High Admiral of Spain. So I mean, James, you know, has a lot of credibility. Clearly, he is completely different to de Ruyter, who’s been a seaman born and bred, he’s grown up on ships, and so forth ,whereas James, of course, is very, very different. And I think that reflects the way that they command; de Ruyter is much closer to the men. James is much more aloof; of course in the end, that’s going to be the trait that cost him his throne when he’s King James the Second. And, but even so, I mean, James is not to be sniffed at as a naval commander by any means. I mean, in 1672, he did have a very, very high reputation.

    Sam Willis
    And it’s fascinating when they come together, so let’s go to the battle. And I think it’s particularly interesting because there’s a certain amount of cat and mouse that goes on before the two fleets meet. Can you just paint us a picture of what’s exactly going on in the channel?

    David Davies
    Well, as I suggested earlier, I mean, the Dutch are very worried about a suggestion of the English and the French joining forces to see if they think they can take on one of them individually. But taking on both together is a problem. So what de Ruyter would ideally like to do is to try and stop the two fleets joining. And he is gearing up for a pre-emptive attack. Now, through various circumstances, that doesn’t happen, and therefore he has to go to plan B. Plan B, obviously, the English and the French have joined. There are the various problems with manoeuvres and the French knowing the ropes as it were, that I suggested earlier. But the two fleets have got together and they move around to Solebay on the coast of Suffolk, and that for people who have been to Southwold and know that coast was a much more pronounced feature than it now is. Now Solebay is just a very flat, straight stretch of coast, you can’t really see any, there’s no headlands or anything at all. But of course, that coast is particularly prone to coastal erosion. It wasn’t much more of a proper bay in the 17th century. And what de Ruyter decides on is is almost a Pearl Harbour idea in a way of a pre- emptive attack on the fleet to try and surprise the Anglo Dutch fleet before it can come out properly, because what the plan is for the Anglo Dutch fleet is to mount a blockade of the Dutch coast to stop shipping coming in and out of the Netherlands. Because for the Dutch trade, seaborne trade, is their absolute lifeblood. And the English and the French know this, and they’re going try and cut it off. So de Ruyter decides he’s going to launch this surprise attack on the combined fleet while it’s at anchor in Solebay.

    Sam Willis
    It’s interesting talking about the fear of the Dutch in terms of being blockaded, and it’s something I’ve never been able to quite get straight in my head, whether the Dutch coast is, or the Dutch in general, are easy to blockade because they’re at that end of the channel, or because of their coastline, they’re incredibly difficult to actually pin down; what’s your view on that

    David Davies
    They’re incredibly difficult, partly because as you suggest, I mean, the coastal waters are very shallow. Remember, there’s a lot of the French and English ships having very deep drafts. This is a difference between them and the Dutch, because the Dutch because of the nature of their waters, and their harbours, tend to have much shallower draft. So it’s difficult in that sense. And of course, given the prevailing winds, it’s almost always or very often at any rate a lee shore. So if you have a fleet in the wrong place on the Dutch coast and a storm comes up you can very easily get into serious trouble. And this happens. You know that they do try blockades later on in the war on the Dutch coast. And you know they are hitting bad weather, it’s very, very difficult to maintain ships on that station. So yes, I mean, it’s a real issue, I think it’s one of those things where there’s a difference between the theory that’s cooked up by people on shore and the actual practice that seems encountered out on the ocean. Because the practicality of trying to mount a 24/7 blockade of the Dutch coast is tremendous. Yes.

    Sam Willis
    Yes It’s interesting how all the pieces fell together. So the two fleets meet at Solebay and it’s the Dutch who do take the English by surprise.

    David Davies
    Yes, very much.

    David Davies
    So I mean, especially because on the night the Dutch attack early in the morning of May the 28th. And incidentally, of course, that’s why we’re talking about the battle now, we’re coming up to the 350th anniversary. The Dutch attack early in the morning, and the English and the French aren’t expecting them. Lots of the men are ashore, the Duke of York is ashore, the place where he actually spent the night still exists. And it’s a very nice restaurant with rooms. And it’s got a plaque and so on. And they were so complacent that they actually healed the flagship, the Prince, over on its side to clean the hull, to careen it. And a couple of hours later, of course, the Dutch are sighted and they’ve got to put it back up right again, very, very quickly. James has got to get on board. And in all the confusion caused by this attack in the very early hours and then through dawn, the great issue of the Battle of Solebay takes place because the fleet does get underway. The Dutch are coming in. It’s roughly a southeasterly wind, they’re coming in pretty much abeam to that. And the two English squadrons, the Red Squadron and the Blue Squadron, who are the two squadrons anchored more northerly in Solebay, they get away to the north with the Blue leading; the Blue should have been the rear of the entire fleet. Whereas the French, who should have been the van Squadron, get away to the south. And I think there are various explanations that have been suggested for this, including the great jackpot conspiracy theory, which we’ll come to perhaps in a minute. But really, if you actually think about the practicalities of it, how could they possibly have issued commands to the Fleet of flag signals, saying which tack they should have got underway on, and you know, the French were the van Squadron, they would reasonably have expected I think the other two squadrons to follow them, instead of which the two English squadrons sail off to the north, the French to the south, and this big gap appears. And that is immediately what causes the problem for the Allied fleet at Solebay.

    Sam Willis
    Do the Dutch take advantage of it and cut them in half?

    David Davies
    Well, in effect they do, because what they do then is they send the Zealand Squadron and Adriaen Banckert down to engage the French. And so it’s almost a separate battle between the Zealand Squadron and the French and it’s a very, very hard fought bloody battle. I mean, whatever problems there might have been with the French squadron beforehand, in the battle itself they acquit themselves incredibly well. And some very vicious fighting; as far as we know about 450 French sailors are killed including the Rear Admiral, who was given a very grand funeral in Rochester cathedral incidentally, because he was a Protestant. And so you’ve got that battle happening way off to the south, you have another battle with the two main fleets and de Ruyter and James, Duke of York, further north, and the two don’t join up at all during the day to all intents and purposes. And as I say that then sowed the seeds later on for a conspiracy theory, but maybe a bit more, maybe it would be better if we talk about the two English squadrons first.

    Sam Willis
    Yes, OK. We’ll do that. And then we’ll come back to the conspiracy theory. I do like a naval conspiracy theory. So what did the English get up to?

    David Davies
    Okay, so they are going to the northwards, they’re engaged by de Ruyter’s main fleet. Now, the thing with seventeenth century naval battles and to an extent right to the age of sail is that you target the flagships. And it’s so often the case that the heaviest fighting is around the flagships, and the heaviest casualties are on the flagships. And that’s very much what happens at Solebay, the Prince, the flagship of the entire fleet, but also the Red Squadron, comes under very heavy attack from de Ruyter. and his seconds, and is very, very badly damaged, casualties are mounting, and people are saying to James, you have got to change your ship. Because remember, this man is the heir to the throne; if something that had already happened to Charles the Second you know, within the last 24 hours they didn’t know about, he might already be the King. So the stakes are incredibly high, and James who is brave, whatever faults he might have had he’s an incredibly brave man. For a long, long time, he won’t hear of it, he stays where he is. But eventually even he has to admit the Prince is too disabled. to fight on, he switches his flag to the St. Michael. Then a few hours later the St. Michael is so disabled, he has to switch his flag once more to the London. So in other words, whenever people see James’s Standard, the Standard of the Lord High Admiral of England, going up to the top of the main mast, they attack where the Standard is, and we know that this is what he does. On the rowing boats as he’s going from ship to ship he takes the Standard with him. There’s no hiding place for these people. So the Red is having this incredibly heavy battle. The Blue further north is having this incredibly heavy battle which again centres on the flagship, which is the Royal James, and on her is the Earl of Sandwich. Edward Montague, the first Earl of Sandwich, who of course is very well known to history because he appears so much in Pepys’s diary, he’s the patron and the mentor of Pepys throughout the the diary period. He’d originally been one of Cromwell’s generals at sea. And so Montague is again having this huge fight in the Royal James. Two Dutch fire ships attack the Royal James; they are repelled. Then a third one comes in, succeeds in grappling on to the bows; there’s a superb painting in the National Maritime Museum in Greenwich of this particular incident. And the Royal James can’t get rid of this one, and is burned, completely burned. And the casualties on her are absolutely horrendous. She had a crew of over 800, we’re pretty certain that over 700 of them die, because either they’re burned, or even get off the ship because the vast majority of sailors in those days couldn’t swim. And the great tragedy of the battle from the English side, of course, is that Sandwich is one of the killed and nobody knows exactly what’s happened to him and there are hopes he might have gone off alive. But then a few days later, a fishing smack finds his body floating in the water. And obviously after a few days in the water in the North Sea you can’t really recognise too much from facial features. They recognise him because he’s got the Star of the Order of the Garter on the tunic coat that he’s wearing.

    Sam Willis
    So I mean, combined this with what happened at Chatham in the previous war with the loss of the Royal Charles, the Royal James burned, Montague’s dead, it doesn’t seem to be going very well for the for the Navy.

    David Davies
    And because that is exactly where the conspiracy theory comes from. Because even though as I say all the objective evidence says that the French really do very well in this battle, that the fact that they go the other way, leads within a day, within hours in fact, to the idea starting to develop that they’d gone the wrong way deliberately. That In other words, though, these are two mutually exclusive theories; either they had only joined up with the English in the first place to know the strengths and weaknesses of English naval methods and to find out about the dockyards and so on. You know, it was all ahead of the day when they will betray the English and attack themselves. Or the alternative to that is that they just wanted to leave the English and the Dutch to hammer each other so much, take each other out, in effect, so that the French could then come in, and just be the number one naval power in Western Europe, in effect. And so this is where the seed is planted within days, and in the coffee houses in London and so on, this is going around, and then the subsequent events of the war, particularly in 1673, the battles there where something fairly similar happens, particularly in the final battle of the war, that theory, that conspiracy, it just develops, it develops, it gets stronger and stronger, until in the end, Charles has no choice but to pull out of the war. Parliament is basically refusing to vote him any more money. The war had always been incredibly unpopular from the start, in an alliance with Catholic France against the Protestant Dutch. But really, you could almost say that this is the start of seeing the French as the great natural naval enemy. That feeling that goes all the way through to, certainly to Trafalgar, arguably beyond. Yes, I know, you’ve had the 100 Years War and so on in the Middle Ages, but there have been plenty of periods after that where there have been alliances between the English and the French; this is the last time you get that in a war I think I’m ready to say until the Crimean War. You know, it really marks a sea change in how the English think about the French.

    Sam Willis
    I’m not surprised with their new Navy and, and movements like that on the battlefield. It’s slightly reminiscent of something from the Wars of the Roses. I wonder where they got that suspicion from? Or, those classic mediaeval examples of treachery? I’m not sure I believe it myself. I don’t think the French did it on purpose.

    David Davies
    Yes, no, undoubtedly, they didn’t. I mean, there’s a slightly stronger case to be made for a conspiracy theory at the Battle of the Texel in August 1673. Maybe we can talk about that next year when the 350th anniversary of that one comes around. But no, I mean, at Solebay I think it was just, it has to be put down to the sheer confusion of the circumstances in which the battle took place. And the fact as I say, the absolutely objective evidence shows that the French fought very, very hard, very bravely, very well, against an opponent in Adrienne Bankert and the Zealand ships, who were incredibly experienced and battle hardened. So I can see why the conspiracy theory developed. But there’s certainly no grounds for it really, in terms of this particular battle.

    David Davies
    I mean, I suppose the key factor in this battle is that it’s not a knockout blow like Trafalgar was one hundred and however, many years later, and in the 17th century, the style of naval warfare, it’s almost like they couldn’t achieve the knockout blow that was then envisaged by later generations of historians and strategists. It was almost impossible to actually get there. And that meant that the war wasn’t finished, it carried on. What do you think about that? I mean, is that fair to say?

    David Davies
    Oh yes,I mean, without doubt, I mean, obviously, both sides claim victory. But then both sides always claimed victory in 17th century naval battles, and many other battles before and since. in one sense, there’s relatively little damage done, there’s only two ships lost on the Dutch side, one on the English side, which was the Royal James, which was a big casualty, yes, but there is quite a huge attrition rate in Captain’s you know, the English fleet loses one Admiral and eight captains, which is a fairly extraordinary number for any battle, but no, in terms of strategic goals and so on it was very indecisive. The Dutch retreated back to their own coast because the wind had changed, the wind had come in the favour of the Anglo French fleet. But of course, the English and the French can’t then mount the blockade as we talked about earlier, not very effectively. So in a sense, the Dutch have come out of it better because they have prevented their enemies achieving their objective. For the Dutch this war is defensive, overwhelmingly defensive, because literally I think it’s five days, maybe six days, after the Battle of Solebay, the French army pours into the Netherlands, pours across the Rhine, and very nearly conquers the entire country. And the only thing that saves them is they basically cut the dykes, flood the area around Amsterdam. So again, you can’t separate out Solebay and the naval war, from the context of what’s going on on land. The Dutch aren’t aiming to win the war in terms of an out and out conquest of their enemies. I mean, that’s clearly going to be impossible. Their war objective is survival. Here simply I mean, for the Dutch, they call this the Rampjaar, the year of disaster. And it literally is the survival of their entire country that’s at stake. And so Solebay although it’s a fairly small part of it does contribute to the survival of the Dutch Republic, which of course, then did what the Dutch Republic did in times of crisis throughout history, they turned to the nearest person they could find, who was called William of Orange. And the rest, as they say, is history.

    Sam Willis
    A very good place to end David, thank you very much indeed and sharing this battle. I look forward to coming back next year and 1673 in the Battle of the Texel, it will be another enjoyable one to talk about, but thank you very much indeed for your time.

    David Davies
    No problem, Sam. Thanks again

    Sam Willis
    Many thanks indeed for listening now, please check out the Mariners Mirror podcast on YouTube. Don’t just listen to the podcast, you can see all the brilliant animations and videos we’ve been creating, particularly a fantastic new mini series of films in which we film the world’s best ship models with the latest camera equipment. Now this podcast comes from both the Lloyd’s Register Foundation and the Society for Nautical Research. Do please take the time to check out everything both of those wonderful institutions have been up to; you can find the Lloyd’s Register Foundations History Centre and archive at h ec.lrfoundation.org.uk. And the Society for Nautical Research@snl.org.uk where you can join up to enjoy all of the numerous perks of membership, including four copies of the printed Mariners Mirror journal every year, online access to over a century’s worth. Yes, a century’s worth of maritime history scholarship, online seminars. You can even come to dinner on board HMS Victory, what more could you possibly want?

Category: | |