Iconic Ships 11: HMS Warrior

October 2021

In this episode Dr Sam Willis explores HMS Warrior, one of the most groundbreaking ships in the history of naval power. An iron-framed, iron-clad single-gundeck warship, launched in 1860 HMS Warrior defied categorisation and changed the way that seapower was both wielded and imagined. She was built in a period of intense rivalry between Britain and France when technology was advancing so rapidly that innovations existed alongside an entirely realistic fear that new inventions would undermine Britain’s existing naval supremacy. In this period steam would replace sail for propulsion; iron and then steel would replace wood for construction; exploding shells would replace solid iron shot for armament and they would be fired from rifled, breech loading guns that could fire further than could ever have been imagined. Warrior had more firepower than two standard wood ships of the line. Remarkably, Warrior still survives: she was decommissioned from active service in 1882, but survived being scrapped. In 1979 the ship was rescued for preservation having served as a fuelling pontoon in South Wales for 50 years. She can now be visited in all of her glory at the National Museum of the Royal Navy in Portsmouth: a most remarkable warship – a technological innovation in the business of war, but which never fired a single shot in anger: and the two were linked: warrior was so superior to any other warship at the time of its construction that its supremacy never had to be challenged in battle: she was the ultimate naval deterrent. To find out more, Sam speaks with Jeremy Michell, Senior Curator: Maritime Technologies at the National Maritime Museum in London.

  • View The Transcription

    Sam Willis
    From the Society for Nautical Research in partnership with Lloyd’s Register Foundation, I’m Sam Willis. And this is the mariners mirror podcast, the world’s number one podcast dedicated to all of maritime history. Hello everyone and welcome to the mariners mirror Podcast. Today we are continuing our series on iconic ships, in which we asked the curator of a historic vessel to make the case for their ship being iconic, or we ask a historian to make a case for a ship which is lost to us now, being iconic. Today we very much have one that survives, always a sentence I’m delighted to say, yes, we are talking about HMS Warrior. She survived today at Portsmouth historic Dockyard, and you can visit, look around her, and be astonished. Please note that to go alongside this episode; we’ve done one of our clever animations, bringing a complicated ship plan to life. We’ve done this a couple of times before with a very complicated plan of a ‘K’ class submarine, a steam submarine from the First World War. Also a bewildering boiler plan from the archives of the Lloyd’s Register Foundation, both to great success. So I would urge you to look at those as well as what we’ve managed to achieve with HMS Warrior. In short, we took a broadside ship plan of the warrior from the archives of the National Maritime Museum in Greenwich and then animated it. So various key aspects of her design grow out of the plan, and then sink back into it. Helping you understand what you are looking at by presenting it in 3D. It’s quite difficult to explain but seriously impressive to watch. And it makes perfect visual sense. That is available on the mariners mirror podcast YouTube page, and also on the Society for Nautical Researchers Facebook page, and there will be shorter clips of the video shared across both Twitter and Instagram. Now to tell you about HMS Warrior, we have Jeremy Mitchell, Senior Curator maritime technologies at the National Maritime Museum in Greenwich, London. Here’s Jeremy.

    Sam Willis
    Jeremy, thank you very much for talking to me today.

    Jeremy Mitchell
    Not at all Sam. It’s a pleasure. Right,

    Sam Willis
    Right, HMS Warrior, Let’s start with the big question. What was HMS Warrior?

    Jeremy Mitchell
    Well, HMS Warrior was an iron framed ironclad single gun deck warship. And in fact, she is at Portsmouth if people want to go to see her to visualise what she is, what she looks like. She was launched in 1860, in a private yard on the Thames, designed by two surveyors, who are not particularly well known, but Isaac Watts and Joseph Large. And, in fact, we’ve got the plans for the ship in the National Maritime Museum collection. And the engine were designed and built for the ship with the assistance of Thomas Lloyd, who’s the chief engineer and inspector of steam machinery.

    Sam Willis
    I think when once we finished talking about HMS Warrior, it might be worth coming back to these people. Because for the scale of the extraordinary innovation that they’ve managed to achieve, I reckon they deserve to be better known. What do you think?

    Jeremy Mitchell
    Yeah, I do. And in fact, within our own collections, both Isaac Watts and Joseph Large, you find their signatures on all sorts of plans covering this very experimental period.

    Sam Willis
    Yeah, I think the thing I love about this period, let’s just give it some dates, shall we actually, what sort of what period? Are we talking about? 1860s. So she was built in a two or three years before then, was it quite a quick turnaround?

    Jeremy Mitchell
    It was quite a quick turnaround. In fact, what the Admiralty had discovered was that the French were looking to build some kind of ironclad ships in the 1850s. So by 1858, Britain was looking at its own designs to respond to this potential French threat. So Warrior really only took just over a year or so to build. We shouldn’t be too surprised that Warrior was Warrior, because Great Eastern had been launched in 1858, as an iron ship on a massive scale. Warrior was the second longest ship when she was launched in 1862 years later. So there’s a lot of technology swirling around within both the private and the public sector in this very short time period, and it’s really fascinating. It’s actually quite an under studied time period, unfortunately.

    Sam Willis
    I think You know, Jeremy, it’s such an extraordinary period of dramatic change. And it’s, it’s almost impossible to get your head around the scale of what they were trying to do with everything they looked at. They sort of said, well, that that that’s not good enough for the future; let’s have a go at rethinking that. So it’s, it’s the scale of innovation I’m impressed by.

    Jeremy Mitchell
    Yes. Warrior is one of those ships where it’s a time for the Navy to become revolutionary rather than evolutionary. When you’ve got the largest Navy in the world, the last thing you want to do is make it obsolete. Because then it allows your potential rivals and enemies to catch up. But actually, this was one of those moments where Britain had been watching what was going. The French were building their wooden warships with iron cladding. Gloire was the first of that class launched in 1859, and they just ordered another five. Britain really had to counter this potential threat from across the channel. And what really makes this revolutionary is that there was a conscious decision made both within the Admiralty and politically that if you build a ship, like Warrior, you’re now going to have to rely on your merchant, or private yard, building and outbuilding, your potential enemy, Equally, that you will be able to economically support that massive increase in expenditure.

    Sam Willis
    Yeah, I mean, the danger of revolutionary design, I don’t think is, is really considered enough. But I find that point fascinating that the problem is if you build something new, and you’ve got the world’s largest Navy, then you’re digging yourself a pretty massive hole. But at some point, you’ve got to take that leap. It takes real courage, doesn’t it?

    Jeremy Mitchell
    It does, I couldn’t find the quote. But there was a quote from Pakington, who was the First Lord of the Admiralty, about how politically brave that decision was. The surveyor of the Navy at the time, he wrote to Packington saying, ‘We don’t normally innovate like this, but actually, it’s being forced upon us by a foreign power’. And that we had to come up with a novel design of ship that would counter it, and that time had now arrived.

    Sam Willis
    Yeah, yeah. And it’s not just a matter of the designers being courageous; you need the political support for people to pony up the money. And they’re not just doing that to build you a new ship, but there’s a kind of a ghost of enormous expenditure that comes behind it, which I think makes this moment particularly frightening indeed, because not only are you building one ship, you’re potentially building a fleet of them.

    Jeremy Mitchell
    Yes, the challenge of course, when you make your own fleet obsolescence, or even obsolete, so you can imagine that when Warrior is launched, HMS Victory and all of her successors even those with steam engines added are now obsolete. Warrior could outgun and outpace any ship of the Royal Navy, you’re having to now make that decision of, well, we’ve got an innovative design, which, which we’re going to have to keep on improving on which will cost money. But actually, what the Admiralty finds is that the government having had the appetite of taking that very large step from wooden warships with engines to an iron framed ironclad warship with Warrior that they start to roll back and try to find cheaper versions of, of Warrior as well as trying to resolve some of the issues that they found with Warrior because she was so innovative.

    Sam Willis
    Yeah, it’s like the question isn’t necessarily can you build a ship like Warrior? It’s can you build them in greater numbers than us? Yes, you know, that’s the implication isn’t it?

    Jeremy Mitchell
    It is and that’s why you get these different sort of Warrior derivations that are slightly smaller. But equally what the Navy was doing was they were going down a little bit of the French route, which was to iron clad wooden ships as well just to build up numbers while they were then focusing on your sort of the capital ship like Warrior and Black Price and, Achilles and so on that come afterwards.

    Sam Willis
    Yeah, I think one of the key things as well as when he’d go and look at warrior at Portsmouth, as I very much hope all our listeners will go and do is to remember that it was the result of not just design innovation, but design, innovation comes. What comes with that are experiments but failures as much as the successes and so really, really difficult to actually achieve. And the final result you look at when you see warrior was in no way inevitable. Yeah, a really torturous process of design and birth.

    Jeremy Mitchell
    Yes. And I think that the British government and the Admiralty were very lucky that they had an active and large shipbuilding industry within the private sector. So while the Admiralty were experimenting in the 1840s, with paddles, and screw propeller, and with different kinds of engines, and armour, and iron construction. They were watching what was going on in the private sector, where they were grappling with the same problems. But of course, their issues were motivated by how much trade capacity how fast, whereas the admiralty would be interested in how can that be utilised to create a powerful warship that can police, a maritime empire. And so you’re the you’re right, that Warrior scene as a success actually masks all of those incremental failures and successes that would have happened for decades beforehand, before there was that confidence that you could put this all together in one ship and create something like Warrior?

    Sam Willis
    Yeah, we mentioned the Great Eastern there as well. And for those of you who are listening, do please make sure you check out a forthcoming video that I’ve recently made on the Great Eastern, we filmed a model, a beautiful diorama, which is held at the collections of the National Maritime Museum and filmed it in the most minute detail quite extraordinary. So do make sure you look at that. But the key difference between Great Eastern which is a passenger ship, merchant ship, and the Warrior as a warship apart from the functions of them is the propulsion. So Jeremy, tell us a bit about Warriors propulsion.

    Jeremy Mitchell
    Yeah, so Warriors propulsion was, was still a hybrid between sail and steam. She had a two bladed lifting propeller, which the Admiralty had been experimenting with, in fact, Erebus and Terror go off to the arctic with Sir John Franklin with a two bladed lifting propeller , in a very similar way of lifting it up through the deck in a well and Warrior had the same. But actually, I seem to recall reading that they very rarely lifted the propeller because it was such a faff to, to bring it up. And they ended up just leaving it fixed in place while they were under sail. So what the you would end up doing is you’d lower the funnels, which were, which were telescopic down towards the deck so that you could get the sails out and you could then sail her like a regular ship. And you just disconnect the propeller blades so that from the steam engine, and then off you go. But of course the problem with Warrior was that she was quite a long and slender ship, which meant that sailing was fine in straight lines. But as soon as you wanted to either go through the wind through the tacking or, or jibing it became a bit more of a problem. And sometimes they would actually use a combination of sail and steam in order to do those sorts of manoeuvres.

    Sam Willis
    Yeah, I was fascinated reading about that when you’ve got a sailing vessel, which is also got steam funnels and the danger of setting fire to your own rig was very real.

    Jeremy Mitchell
    That’s right. I think the phrase they used to use, if I remember correctly from when I went round Warrior years ago was you’d say, down funnels up screw, which was they then then preparing the ship for sail, but actually, reality was that they didn’t always do that. And of course, if you have the funnels up you then can’t really use the sails around the mainmast. Because, as you say you might set fire to them.

    Sam Willis
    So what we got here is something kind of reminiscent of the SS Great Britain and again, listeners, if you’re out there, do please check out the episode on Brunel’s’ SS Great Britain because she was we have a screw propeller there and also a rig. So, that was the, you know, similar to something that had been had been tried before. But what really makes Warrior different is that is her size and the armour in particularly I find that extraordinary, the changes in the construction.

    Jeremy Mitchell
    Yes, they were the French had clad a wooden framed warship, a traditional warship with iron as a way of protecting it against cannon fire. The British government or the Admiralty took it one stage further and they actually worked out through trial and error, what they felt the thickness of iron plating should be and created this. This kind of box that was armour plated So even though some of the guns that were outside the box, and therefore were more exposed, those inside were in impenetrable iron armoured plating, which was about, I think it was four inches. And they found that this thickness of armour plating was effective against all known guns at the time. But of course, the issue then you have is that if you innovate with your armour, someone’s then going to have to design a gun that can pierce that armour. So you end up with a sort of unofficial arms race between those who design your armour plating and those who then design the guns to penetrate it. And the Warrior experimented with a system called tongue and groove iron plating, but it was found to be quite expensive, and it added weight. And they found that the shock impact when they were experimenting with gunfire against it, the tongue and groove allowed the shockwave to transmit into adjoining plates causing them to crack. So after that, they went back to dovetailing them together or butting them back together. So that was experiments that then we’re done with Warrior in order to understand the impact because of course, the trouble has been an innovative ship. And Dreadnought in 1906 suffers from this problem is that they are made obsolescent very quickly as designed to accelerate away from them as the innovator though unlike Dreadnought, who at least sank a submarine during the First World War. Warrior actually didn’t fire a shot and anger.

    Sam Willis
    Yeah, tell me about the forced ventilation system. This I think it’s extraordinary.

    Jeremy Mitchell
    And yes, so they, they came up with this idea. And you can imagine being on Victory at Trafalgar, you’ve got all the guns firing and the smoke starts to collect on the lower deck. So on Warrior to get around that. And to make her an effective fighting platform, they installed a forced ventilation system using steam driven fans that kept the pressure on the gun deck higher than atmospheric pressure in order to drive that smoke outboard. So actually, the those operating the guns had a much clearer view of what was going on both inside the ship and also if you’re looking out through the gun ports, you could then see more clearly what was going on outside. Unlike your enemy who would suffer the age old problem of gun smoke hanging around within the gun decks.

    Sam Willis
    Yeah, its technology that kind of reminds me of operating theatres or spaceships. Yet they’ve managed to do it in the Victorian period on a warship.

    Jeremy Mitchell
    Yes, I, we like to feel that we have we, we invent things in the 21st century, and that technology rapidly changes in the 21st century. But I think if you if we spent more time looking back at this particularly innovative period, we realise that the technological change of the past can be as rapid and feel as rapid which it did at the time.

    Sam Willis
    Tell me about the molten iron in the shells as well. I mean, you might assume that here’s a warship when it’s got it’s got portholes for the cannon to be to be you know, wheeled out and fired as per normal, but by no means were these normal guns.

    Jeremy Mitchell
    No some of the guns that were put on the ship were relatively experimental anyway, and by the end of it not found to to work particularly efficiently. So they had put 100 pound Armstrong guns which were the new design, but then they, they, they reordered them, and got a slightly lower poundage guns on board because they knew that they work better. But one of the things they were experimenting with was they put a blast furnace down in the boiler room to fill Martin shells. So Martin shells were a shell that had molten iron poured into them, and a stopper put in and they had to be fired within four minutes of being filled. It was a it was like the mid-19th century equivalent of heating up your shot during the 18th century to fire at a wooden warship and the hope of setting it on fire. One of the things they did find was that actually when they’d heated the molten iron and put it in the shell, it actually stayed red hot for at least an hour. So this idea initially that it had to be fired within four minutes, minutes of filling was a bit of a red herring. But of course, they are having this on board ship when Warrior and then you’ve got Gloire and a couple of other French ironclads. They are the only ones that would have been protected. All the other ships of the other navies would have been wooden. So this is quite a major threat that that that these countries would have had to have dealt with when addressing what Warrior stood for within their own naval designs.

    Sam Willis
    I’ve always imagined it to be pretty horrible in any ships boiler room but a a boiler room in an iron warship which is also has a furnace for molten iron is kind of unimaginable like the Gates of Hell

    Jeremy Mitchell
    yes and you look at when you look at Warrior you can see that there’s quite a lot of ventilation cowlings to force air down below into the engine rooms to not only keep them cool but also to expel all of that heat and fumes that’s being produced from the furnaces and from the from the boilers.

    Sam Willis
    It’s fascinating the way that with all of this innovation, you’ve got a very vulnerable part of the ship that the main bit is the you know, the engines the boilers and it’s all very much in the centre of the ship is so different to a sailing warship where the vulnerable parts have to do with the rig essentially because if you can disable the ship and it becomes stationary then you can sail around it and take it to pieces bit by bit but they solve the problem here with Warrior by building this this box or Citadel tell us about that.

    Jeremy Mitchell
    Yeah, the Citadel was the armour plated box and within there within the main guns, the engines, and the boilers. S if the ship was hit at the bow or the stern unlike in the 18th century Navy where if you find a broadside through the stern those cannonballs would just disappear straight down the gun decks causing havoc. On Warrior if you tried that, they would hit the four and a half inch thick Citadel armour plating that protected the majority of the gun deck and the engines. So the ship was actually very well protected. The bow and stern, while they didn’t have any of the armour plating, they did have watertight bulkheads, which was the first time for a warship to have watertight bulkheads. And in fact, I think subsequent workers discovered that if there all of those watertight bulkheads been compromised, she would have sunk about 26 inches in the water but still floated so they really had over engineered solutions to problems that they were used to needing to think about was wooden warship design.

    Sam Willis
    Yeah and this the Citadel is interesting because it’s you need to be told about it it’s not the kind of visually apparent when you look at the ship from externally but one thing that is the beautiful lines of the warrior and how she has a kind of a very elegant clipper bow which makes her so distinctively different from later armoured warships. But that wasn’t a brilliant idea was it, that bow ?

    Jeremy Mitchell
    but no no, I’m I will say that I was I was how I was I was eight when warrior came into Portsmouth and I was there with my camera and I just remember seeing how beautiful this ship looked. And what makes that ship beautiful is that that clipper bow on that frigate stern, that elliptical stern. But in the in designing the ship, what they effectively did was they added an extra 40 tonnes of weight by putting a clipper bow on Warrior and you then see in subsequent designs, the bows become much straighter they’ve become straight stemmed. And then after the Battle of Lissa in1866, they start to create rammed bows so you do away with this clipper bow. So of course at that point that you see the demise of figureheads on warships because if you’ve got a straight stem, you’ve got no nowhere to put a figurehead unless you build a knee out on purpose to put one on. And it’s a shame if you like your ships looking elegance that disappears, but I suppose it was done partly through aesthetics, but also it was what they knew they this was how you built wooden warship so you set down what you know as well. And it’s only through seeing how well that works in their new design that you then make those amendments, subsequently.

    Sam Willis
    That sort of the subsequent period when rams come into use is extraordinary because they it’s a period where they turn the ship itself into a weapon rather than the ship being a platform for gunnery

    Jeremy Mitchell
    it’s an odd one isn’t it there’s a bit of a dead end because the Battle of Lissa prove to you that if the ship you’re going to ram was stationary in the water and unable to fire guns at you then they were a legitimate target but actually reality if you were both under steam firing guns at each other would you really want to get that close as a as a captain, to ram the enemy But I think one of the upsides was that by putting a ram bow on, you actually improve the hydrodynamics of the bow anyway, and you look at modern ships, now they, they’re not round bows, but they do have those bulbous bows. So you can almost see some kind of sort of logical progression.

    Sam Willis
    Yeah, I this part is part of our iconic ships series. And it does strike me that we should probably spend a bit of time about thinking what would make a ship iconic, or not? What are your views on that?

    Jeremy Mitchell
    What makes an iconic ship is always an interesting question, isn’t it? Sometimes, ships are iconic because they’re the last surviving example of their kind you’ve got HMS Belfast, HMS Caroline. You’ve got Victory. And in fact, you’ve got, you’ve got Warrior. Warrior is the only surviving ironclad warship from the Victorian period in the UK, but Victory sorry, Warrior takes it just a little bit further. She’s the combination of evolutionary technology with revolutionary ideas that ultimately creates the most powerful warship of her age, rendering all other warships obsolete and inspires a revolution in battleship design, which you see all the way through up to and including sort of Dreadnaughts, and then the sort of Dreadnought era of battleships.

    Sam Willis
    Yeah. And it’s easy to forget that if you’ve, if you’ve transformed warship design, then by definition, you’ve transformed everything else, particularly dockyards.

    Jeremy Mitchell
    That’s right. The reason why Warrior and Black Prince , which was Warriors sister ship, were built in private yards was that naval dockyards were not geared up to building iron ships, like these two, whereas these private yards had been building iron merchant ships. And so Warrior ends up transforming how naval dockyards are laid out and instigates changes in trade. So you go from having traditional carpenters and lofting floors where the people are used to working in wood, you now have smithies and foundries and the associated infrastructure to support that. And what you end up with is, is again, a massive investment financially in in changing the various naval dockyards around the United Kingdom, to cope with this this new design because ultimately, the decision to go with an iron framed iron clad will make every other wooden ship obsolete. And you won’t go back to that. And you can see this with the discussions over HMS Victory and her restoration in the 1920s that there are very few people who have that kind of experience of working with wooden ships because the dockyard infrastructure has changed so dramatically in that time.

    Sam Willis
    Yeah, I mean, it’s worth think about what the logical next step would have been if Warrior hadn’t come along. So you’ve got wooden ships, which are, they’re clearly not going to be strong enough. So this, the obvious solution would be to keep the wooden frames but to put iron plating on the wooden frames. But that, of course means that you’re restricted in the size of vessel you can build. And it’s this, you know, evolutionary step, which they jumped, isn’t it?

    Jeremy Mitchell
    They did, I think, watching what the French were doing was quite a useful sort of discussion point for the, for the Navy and for the naval designers. You’d ended up having to put so much iron work to support all of this additional iron work on a wooden ship that actually it makes sense just to go for an iron ship. I did come across in our collection, a proposal from a London based ship builder in the 1830s, where he’d been discussing iron ships, but of course, his concern was the iron rust in water. So his solution was to cover everything that was made of iron in rubber, and then stick it all together. So it protected it so you, you do have these issues that need resolving and the biggest one for the Navy was that you’ve already built the biggest wooden ships you can with engines in them, but of course they sag at both ends under the weight of everything, they hog. So you then put more iron bracing inside to stop that but now you’re adding extra weight to the ship and if you then put iron on the outside, you’re adding even more weight. So you end up needing to look at how you can reduce weight. Well the way you reduce the weight is you, you start to have to move into using iron. So there is a logical progression for Warrior being built, but they, they missed out the whole sort of wood iron cladding experiment, and went straight into iron frame, iron cladding.

    Sam Willis
    What about her career? You mentioned briefly that she never fired a shot in anger. What did she do?

    Jeremy Mitchell
    Um, Warrior did spend quite a bit of time undertaking experimental trials. And her first captain Cochrane, I think her surname was he, he was very interested in the ship and he recommended alterations and improvements, which then fed into subsequent designs. Warrior did undertake tours I can’t remember what whether in the end, she might have towed a floating dock over to the to Barbados, but I can’t remember off the top of my head. But it wasn’t particularly a glorious career just because of the subsequent designs that have been based on Warrior made her in herself, obsolescent and it was also generally a time of peace. There was no major conflict going on. So the Royal Navy was very much focusing on policing its own interest within its maritime empire. And that involve having a home fleet because there’s a continual suspicion about what the French were up to. And it didn’t help that Gloire had been seen as a direct challenge to Britain supremacy and the Royal Navy. So Warrior would have been kept at the home as a home fleet defence ship because of her status. So yeah, it’s, it’s unfortunate when you’re an innovative ship, you rarely get the opportunity to, to prove your mettle.

    Sam Willis
    And her story is a little similar to the SS Great Britain as well, because she was in a very, very sad state before coming back to Portsmouth. You tell us a little about that. And you mentioned seeing her come back in 87. It must have been to Portsmouth what happened to her at the end of her career?

    Jeremy Mitchell
    Yeah, so sadly, I know that she’s a bit of a compliment, I suppose to the Victorian designers and builders Warrior ended up as a hulk a floating platform in South Wales in I think, Pembroke and used as a floating pontoon for ships to go alongside. And there was there a drive to save the ship. And because Warrior was so well built, her state of preservation was incredible and actually made it a viable option and eventually was towed to Hartlepool, where they undertook quite a long restoration. Then, of course, I as a child saw the end result of that which was Warrior being towed into Portsmouth Harbour and with the two tags, one at each end, with firing jets of water with his flotilla of yachts surrounding it was just an incredible experience. And now of course, she’s moored than in Portsmouth Harbour for people to go around. And in fact, when you go around the ship, you can see the armour plating where they’ve cut through the bulkheads on purpose to provide a free flow through you can see the thickness of the armour plating and of the, the teak backing. That was the sandwich between the armour plating and the iron framing of the ship. And you get a real insight into how well engineered this ship was.

    Sam Willis
    Yeah, well, they did very well building an indestructible ship, but because it’s still here. That’s right. Very impressive. Jeremy, thank you so much for talking to me today.

    Jeremy Mitchell
    Not at all. Thank you.

    Sam Willis
    Thank you all for listening. Do please follow us on social media in particular, please seek out the Mariners Mirror podcast on YouTube, where you will find an ever growing library of the most wonderful innovative videos presenting our maritime past in entirely new ways. Please spread the word about the podcast, tell your friends but above all, please join the Society for Nautical Research. It doesn’t cost very much but your subscription fee will help support this podcast. It will help us publish the mariners mirror journal, it will help preserve our maritime heritage and as a paying member, you get to come to our annual dinner on board HMS Victory. What a treat that is and you could find out everything we’ve been doing recently and in the past been running for over a century all of this @snr.org.uk

Category: | | | |