The Royal Navy’s Bloodiest Mutiny: Murder and Mayhem on HMS Hermione

January 2021

The cutting out of HMS Hermione, 24 October 1799

Dr Sam Willis discusses the infamous Hermione mutiny of 1797 with the naval historian Angus Konstam. In 1797 the British frigate HMS Hermione was serving on the Jamaica Station during the French Revolutionary war. Under the sadistic and mercurial Captain Hugh Pigot the ship became a floating hell as he flogged his men and ruled his ship through terror. When the men finally mutinied it became the bloodiest in the history of the Royal Navy. Pigot and his officers were hacked to death. The mutineers then took the ship to the Spanish Main – and handed the ship over to the Spanish. The ship was then recaptured in 1799 in one of the most daring and brilliantly executed operations of the Age of Sail and the Admiralty launched a relentless and worldwide manhunt for the mutineers that lasted a decade. Konstam’s book Mutiny on the Spanish Main: HMS Hermione and the Royal Navy’s Revenge is published by Osprey Books.

 

Need to Know

 

  1. HMS Hermione.

HMS Hermione, a 32-gun fifth-rate frigate, was commissioned in 1782, sixteen years before she became the site of one of the worst mutinies the Royal Navy had ever seen. HMS Hermione was based in the West Indies and saw battle during the start of the French Revolutionary Wars, including the British attack on Port-au-Prince in Haiti, a successful attack as Britain captured the port and captured a large number of merchant vessels.

  1. Captain Hugh Pigot.

Captain Hugh Pigot became captain of the Hermione in 1797 the year that two bad outbreaks of mutiny occurred at the British anchorages of Spithead and the Nore. Before he took this position, he was the captain of HMS Success, where he had gained a reputation of cruelty: he ordered at least 85 floggings, and two men died from their injuries.

  1. Punishment on the Hermione.

A large trigger for the mutiny that occurred on the Hermione in 1797 was the brutal and cruel punishments inflicted on the sailors by Pigot. During the eighteenth-century, the typical punishment for crimes at sea was flogging. Typically, captains were restricted to only inflicting twelve lashes, unless they requested a court martial. Pigot ignored these rules. One of the last straws for the crew was when Pigot humiliated a well-liked officer, David Casey. Pigot attempted to have Casey grovel on his knees in front of the entire crew for an oversight during his watch but he refused to be subjected to such humiliation. As a result, Casey faced twelve lashes, the normal punishment for a sailor, but not a junior officer. This was the primary trigger for the mutiny.

  1. Mutiny on the Hermione.

Mutinies in general during the eighteenth-century typically stemmed from sailors’ grievances which were often about food and pay. But on the Hermione it all came down to the barbaric nature of her captain. On the 21 September 1797, the crew murdered ten of her officers, including Pigot, and then handed the frigate over to the Spanish. Tensions between Britain and Spain were already high and this incensed the Admiralty. As the mutiny on HMS Hermione was one of the worst seen, they were determined to set an example and ensure that incidents like this would not occur again. Thirty-five of her crew of 160 were captured and punished: fifteen hanged and gibbeted, nine hanged, one transported to New Wales, one recommended to be shown mercy, and six acquitted.

Alys Colins

Undergraduate, Plymouth University

 

  • View The Transcription

    Sam Willis

    From the Society for Nautical Research, in partnership with Lloyd’s Register Foundation, I’m Sam Willis, and this is the Mariner’s Mirror Podcast, the world’s number one podcast dedicated to all of maritime history. As always, we begin by catching up on the sailors of the Whaler Swan trapped in the ice off the west coast of Greenland 184 years ago, in the New Year of 1837. It has been a terrifying week.

    Whaler Swan

    Wednesday the 11th, strong breezes from the westward with thick hazy weather. The ship driving onshore in the direction of the reef of bergs. Got the bread started into the bags and all our provisions and clothes on deck. At 2 pm, the flow caught one of the bergs broke the deck up and the pressure of the ice threw the ship on her broadside. Everything at the time being thrown out of her onto the ice, some of the men, in jumping out her, bruised themselves very much. At 4 pm, the flow cracked a stern when the ship righted, and once more we beheld the goodness of the Almighty. Covered with snow and benumbed with cold we ventured on board after having been on the ice three hours, expecting every moment to see our home laid in ruins, and ourselves exposed to the fury of the raging storm. At 10 pm, the winds abated and on trying the current found the ship was brought up. When tired with fatigue and cold some of us lay down and slept. Two shakes, three hundred and thirty-five and three hundred and twenty, and a two-hundred-and-eighty-gallon cask were cut up this day for fuel. The damage the ship has sustained is not known at present. The latter part, light winds but intensely thick and dark weather, thermometer 19 degrees below zero.

    Sam Willis

    Welcome everyone to the Mariner’s Mirror Podcast. Today I shall be talking to the excellent Angus Konstam. Angus is something of a legend of maritime history; he’s written over 100 books, it’s an astonishing number, with titles such as ‘Hunt the Bismarck’ and ‘The Pirate World’ gracing the shelves of those intrigued by maritime history. Angus’ most recent book is ‘Mutiny on the Spanish Main: HMS Hermione and the Royal Navy’s Revenge’ and it tells the story of Britain’s worst-ever mutiny. In 1797, the British frigate HMS Hermione was serving on the Jamaica Station at the heart of Britain’s bitter war against revolutionary France and Spain in the Caribbean, but under the sadistic and mercurial Captain Hugh Pigot, the ship becomes a floating hell; his men are flogged without mercy, and his ship is ruled through terror. This brutal regime, exceptionally harsh even by the standards of the day, eventually pushed Pigot’s men beyond the limits of human endurance. When it came, the mutiny this provoked was the bloodiest in British naval history, an outburst of violence that saw the butchering of Pigot and the hacking to death of his officers. The mutineers then sailed to the Spanish Main and treacherously handed the frigate over to the Spanish. This blood-soaked mutiny incensed the British Admiralty, they launched a relentless worldwide manhunt for the mutineers that continued for a decade. Then two years after she became the Spanish frigate, Santa Cecilia, the Hermione was recaptured in what was one of the most daring and brilliantly executed cutting out operations of the age of fighting sail. This book draws on letters, reports, ship logs, and memoirs of the period, as well as previously unpublished Spanish sources. It’s a fantastic read, and I was very pleased indeed, to be able to talk to Angus about this remarkable event.

    Hi, Angus, thank you very much for talking to us today.

    Angus Konstam

    A pleasure, Sam. Hi.

    Sam Willis

    So, this is some story. How did you come across it the first time?

    Angus Konstam

    Well, it all started when I was working in the Royal Armouries in the Tower of London. We were doing an exhibit; I was down seeing my colleagues in the National Maritime Museum, and in the conservation lab, I came across the painting of this frigate being attacked. And Thomas Pocock as you know normally does these great stirring sea scenes of great British victories, and here is one where he’s actually capturing a British frigate. So, I had no idea what this was about. I was a newbie to all this and so I went to the pub afterwards with two of my friends who are curators, now no longer with us, David Lyon and Teddy Archibald, one the main naval history guy, the other the maritime paintings guy, they took pity on me and told me the story. It cost me several drinks, but it was well worth it. And in the end, I just became slightly fascinated by it. So, it all started really from seeing this painting by Thomas Pocock, which I’m delighted to say the publishers have stuck on the book cover. So now anyone can see it for the princely price of buying a copy.

    Sam Willis

    So, what we’ve got here is this amazing image of a Spanish frigate being attacked by English sailors.

    Angus Konstam

    That’s absolutely it. Yes,

    Sam Willis

    But it’s not originally a Spanish frigate, this was once the Hermione. And your book tells the story of how it ended up in Spanish hands, yeah?

    Angus Konstam

    Absolutely. Yes. Yes, it started as the Hermione 36-gun frigate, it became a 40-gun Spanish frigate called the Santa Cecilia. And the cover shows the daring cutting out, which was called at the time by Vice Admiral Parker, as the most daring example of a raid of its kind, ever, so you should know.

    Sam Willis

    Let’s go back in time, then, and find out how this English ship ended up in Spanish hands. What actually happened? Why was there a mutiny?

    Angus Konstam

    Well, the Hermione was launched in 1782 in Bristol, and she actually wasn’t really used until, she was put into mothballs until the French Revolution, and she was rushed into service crewed up and she set sail for the Caribbean with a crew of 180 people. By the time that the previous Captain died of yellow fever, along with a lot of the crew in early 1797, the crew had dwindled down the new Captain had arrived called Captain Hugh Pigot: he was the son of an Admiral, he was quite young (he was only 29 at the time of the mutiny), but it was more a case of he was a fairly experienced seaman, but he didn’t know much about man management and in the seven months he was in command he managed to have 79 floggings on board, which was, even for the time was quite a record, one guy was flogged seven times, so not a happy ship.

    Sam Willis

    No lucky to survive so many floggings. We should just say that at the time, you know, flogging was standard practice in the Navy but not to the extent that Pigot actually used it.

    Angus Konstam

    That’s right. And it was excessive even by the standards of the time. It wasn’t just that he had favourites, he came from another frigate called the Success which had got into trouble for, he actually flogged an American captain, a merchant captain who he thought had deliberately rammed his ship during an incident the previous year. So, there was a big international incident about this. So rather than send him home, they had a sweeping it under the carpet court martial, and rather when the Success was due home, the Admiral in charge swapped captains and Pigot was given the Hermione. He had a really bad record of floggings on the Success, but he also had a number of favourites. So, on board he had, the old Hermione’s whittled down by yellow fever, and then there’s an influx of, he had, I think, 24 people brought on board, every Captain can bring some, but he seemed to bring a lot of his supporters. And these were people who were then given favourite positions on board, and there was a real ‘us and them’ between the Hermione’s and the Successe’s. So, it all created a bad atmosphere and that extended as far as the officers too.

    Sam Willis

    There’s this wonderful story or terrible story of him threatening to flog the last sailor down from aloft and it was targeted at the young top men and that seemed particularly unfair.

    Angus Konstam

    Absolutely. That was the first of two incidents, well the second of two incidents. The first even more outrageous on the 14th of September, he dis-rated and flogged one of his midshipmen, Midshipman David Casey, a young Irishman (19-year-old) who is quite an experienced sailor, he’d been an Acting Lieutenant on another ship he was moved to the Hermione, and the crew were quite outraged because Casey did nothing wrong apart from defend his own top men, in charge of whichever mast he was in, the mainmast, from the Captain’s wrath. But then so he was flogged in front of the crew and dis-rated, which is not something you do with midshipmen. But less than a week later, well, a week later on the 20th of September, he did the same thing; the Ship was is in the Mona Passage between Santa Dominica and Puerto Rico, a squall came in they decided to take down some of the topsails, topmen were sent aloft, and he was yelling at them all,  and he yelled up to the mizzen topman ‘Right, I’m going to flog the last man down’, so in the rush three of them fell to the deck, splat! one of them actually landed on the ship’s master seriously and badly bruised and injured him. The other two, but all three men died instantly. And rather than show any compassion, Captain Pigot just said throw the lubbers overboard. So, the lubbers were thrown overboard to the total shock and horror of the crew. As you pointed out, the top men are the youngest most agile, and very experienced seaman, they know what they’re doing and to call them a lubber which was just really just the last nail. So, since then, that was just the day before the mutiny, and one of the surviving officers said that it was like the watch with the mainspring broken, the ship was going through its routine, but discipline had completely broken down at this stage and trouble was brewing.

    Sam Willis

    It’s the kind of the extremity of the insult combined with unfairness. I think, you know, from my readings of life on board an 18th-century sailing warship, the one thing that people minded about more than anything, was unfairness, with the possible exception of a thief, no one liked a thief. But unfairness was a serious, serious problem and it made the crew in this instance snap. What happened?

    Angus Konstam

    Well, yes, you’re right. He was a bit of a martinet of a captain. They were chasing Spanish ships, Spanish privateers, in the Mona Passage, together with another small Break, the Diligence. That night they saw the lights of the Diligence as dusk fell, the Captain checked everything was alright and went to his cabin. About half an hour later, the crew sent a ship’s boy to break into the spirit locker, get out a cask of rum and they went in the focsle and started drinking. That was really the core of the mutineers. But remember this is a ship, it’s probably at this stage, the crew is about 150 men, but the ringleaders were only a couple of dozen. So, later about just before 11 o’clock, a group of 12 of them creeps through the lower deck to get to the captain’s cabin, which is of course aft guarded by Marine sentry, it’s pitch dark they would have jostled through their shipmates in their hammocks, and then reach the captain’s door, launch themselves at the sentry armed with cutlasses, and blade pins, knives, everything, clubbed him to the ground, and then broke open the door and rushed into the captain’s cabin. Of course, there’s the great cabin, there’s also a sleeping cabin and another cabin, the door led into the first one for the Captain’s Steward was there sleeping, he was shoved aside, there’s a knot of a dozen seamen raced into the captain’s sleeping cabin, he’d stumbled out of his cot, and he grabbed a dirk to defend himself. And essentially, he said, you know, ‘what’s going on’, and they started laying into him with swords and fists and daggers. He tried to defend himself, but that was it.

    Sam Willis

    Yeah, reading the accounts, you get a sense of being extreme hatred, is the only way I could possibly, you know, describe the accounts of what’s going on. And, you know, this kind of, this decisive, moment when they’ve absolutely had enough and it’s very, very violent and it’s very bloody. But they didn’t just target Pigot, did they?

    Angus Konstam

    No, no, that was just the start. At the same time, another knot raced after the quarter-deck for the Officer of the Watch, a fairly young Lieutenant, was Lieutenant Foreshaw had the watch. And he saw them coming and he ordered, when he heard the screams and shouts from down below just under his feet really, he ordered the guys at the wheel to steer towards the Diligence (he knew where the lights of the accompanying brig were out in the darkness), and they refused. So that was the start of the mutiny. Moments later this knot of seamen run up and grab him. By that time, the whole thing was over in a couple of minutes, the initial thing, so the initial attack. The men from the cabin, then come up and join them on the quarterdeck. They stabbed the Officer of the Watch and throw his body overboard. He actually didn’t die; he was stuck in the chains and was bleeding almost to death, about just literally hanging with one arm over the side of the ship. He made the mistake about half an hour later of crawling back on board and they said, ‘aren’t you done yer bugger’ and then stabbed him again and threw him overboard properly. But at that point, the other officers were in the cabin; they were held there by armed guards; they tried to come out. One, the master tried to climb a climb out through the skylight, and he was hit with a blade pin and told to get back down, so they were held prisoner. By this time the whole crew were roused, and there was this moment, remember I said there’s only a knot of about up to two dozen ring leaders of this mutiny, actually 18 ring leaders but right 24 guys, armed to the teeth, they had to seize control of the ship, they were in the minority. So, what they did is they issued orders; they wanted to turn away from that Diligence; they didn’t want to be there in the morning when there was another armed British ship in the neighbourhood. So, they piped ‘All hands to ‘wear the ship’, so they went up and the men did their duty. They did what they were ordered, they ran up and the ship turned, they turned the wheel and it turned away to the south. By doing that, the rest of the crew were then complicit in the mutiny; they’d obey the orders of the mutineers, not of their officers. After that, some of them started showing they had to almost join-in or some of them didn’t want to, other ones were quite happy to join in. So, they then started threatening the officers and then the snatch squads went down one by one, in the course of what was a pretty horrendous evening, grabbing the most unpopular to start with, dragging them out. There was the first Lieutenant was killed. There was a very unpopular officer who was responsible for, and Pigot’s favourite (the second lieutenant), he was stabbed repeatedly, so was his midshipman, who was a bit of a snitch and on the men too, and they were the first to go. But then in the course of the night, no fewer, well, 10 of the officers were killed that night. Only a couple of them, who were the most popular ones, were left alive.

    Sam Willis

    I mean, the Admiralty were often reasonably understanding in terms of mutiny they’d at least listen to people. What was the punishment for mutiny? And I suppose that the two parts of this question: What was the punishment for mutiny? And was it the scale of the violence that really put these mutineers up against it?

    Angus Konstam

    Yes, of course, as you know, this is on the back of the mutiny at Spithead and the Nore, where it was really about grievance, it was about sailors’ rights, and just getting a fair deal.

    Sam Willis

    Let’s just interrupt there and explain that there were two huge full fleet mutinies at Spithead and the Nore, during this period. And what we’re talking about here is a mutiny of an individual ship, but there have been service-wide mutinies haven’t there?

    Angus Konstam

    Yes, they had been these two huge ones, which were about rights and the in the end, they only hanged, the Admiralty only insisted, in hanging the ringleaders of these mutinies. This one though was completely different. This was an act of violence against the whole established order. The captain was essentially lord and master of his ship, he was backed by the Articles of War, governing discipline on board, and for that to be challenged so violently, was an affront to everything that, all the bedrock of the Navy. So, when news eventually reached the Admiralty, there was, first of all, there was a public outcry; the public were horrified. The Admiralty just insisted on ‘we have got to hunt these people down’, and that’s exactly what they did. They launched what was essentially the largest manhunt the Navy had ever undertaken at that time.

    Sam Willis

    And it was so far away from home waters. That’s a significant, it’s a significant logistical challenge, isn’t it?

    Angus Konstam

    Absolutely. But immediately after the mutiny, the mutineers, of course, there’s the problem, you can’t go home, you’ve stepped over the line. There’s no going home; there’s no seeing your family again. This whole frigate crew were then essentially ostracised the moment they joined the mutiny. So, they sailed it to the port of La Guaira, which is the little port serving Caracas, now on the Spanish main now part of Venezuela, and they essentially handed it over to the Spanish. Spain and France were at war with Britain at the time, so essentially, they were adding treason to mutiny. So, by handing it over to the Spanish, that’s what they did. But that gave them the chance to filter away through the Spanish colonies. And a lot went to America, where there was a mutual language, a burgeoning maritime community where they needed prime seamen and by the time the mutiny some of them had been on board for four years. And of course, they were snapped up. So the Navy set about hunting down these people. They were stopping merchant ships of neutral countries, as well as, obviously hunting down warships. Some were captured on Spanish privateers or French privateers that were captured. Other ones, they stopped Danish, Dutch and American neutral merchant ships and went through a list there was no photo ID in those days. So, they had you know, they had ‘Seaman Wills has a has a wart has left nose and he has a finger missing’, and that’s what they use to ID these people. So, if he was a suspect, he was dragged back for a potential court martial and then a hanging.

    Sam Willis

    Do we have any idea about what those sailors have the Hermione thought about now sailing for the Spanish?

    Angus Konstam

    Well, only a few of them signed up for Spanish service, but a lot of them were quite happy to go into merchant service, and especially American ones, so some of them will end up in American warships. Of these mutineers, only 33 were ever caught, and of those 24 were hanged. The Admiralty, despite the violence and the murder of 10 of their officers, they really wanted to do things by the book. So, everyone had a court martial – I’m not saying it was a fair trial, but it was pretty fair. And some of the best records that I have come across come from these court martials, a lot of the evidence, especially by the men who were essentially turning kings’ evidence to basically wriggle out of a death sentence, of a hanging themselves. But 24 of them were hanged, some in Jamaica, off Port Royal Jamaica, some in the West Indies and a lot in Portsmouth. But the sailors themselves, a number who’d signed up for the Spanish service, some of the Marines even joined the Spanish Army so yeah, they’d had to form a new life for themselves and that’s just what they did.

    Sam Willis

    So, on the one hand, we’ve got the mutineers themselves, the people, but the Admiralty have got this other problem, is that one of their ships is now sailing for the Spanish and they’re not going to let that lie, are they?

    Angus Konstam

    That’s right. The Hermione was getting a bit long in the tooth, she was launched in 1782 but by 1799 she was about to be. The Spanish took ages getting her ready for sea, this took the best part of two years, but finally, she was ready. And the Admiralty knew this from intercepting merchant ships and so on. They knew she was down to sail, so the Admiral in Jamaica ordered Captain Hamilton of the Success to go and capture her. They expected her to sail between the island of Aruba and the South American mainland, but she didn’t show up because the Spanish were late leaving port, they had so many final crewing problems that she was kept in port for another few weeks. So, Hamilton was ordered not to go and cut her out, he was ordered to capture at sea, but he thought ‘Oh, to hell with this. I’m going after her’, and he did. He figured out she was still in port, and then he organised a cutting out expedition and this is probably, this is the moment celebrated in that Pocock painting. On the night of the 24th, 25th of October he sent in 6 boats, 6 of his ship’s boats, all the ships boats, crewed with 100 sailors and marines. Now it turned out that the Hermione, or rather the Santa Cecilia, was crewed by almost 400 Spanish, so the odds were not in the British favour. Plus, they had guard boats guarding the port. They had boom defences around the ship, and more importantly, they had a huge fort. They had a couple of batteries, but one of them was the ship, the ship was parked, or was anchored under the guns of the San Felipe fortress. So, cutting her out as the naval, as you know, as the naval parlance for going in there grabbing a ship and taking her out of a harbour, was never going to be easy. It was going to be a deed of daring-do, but that’s exactly what they managed to do. The attack was almost textbook, there was a problem with a couple of the ships got distracted. A couple of ships boats got distracted, the Spanish raised the alarm. The Spanish crew were even down below decks blasting away into the night. They thought they were under attack from ships. But these ship’s boats came in underneath that boarded and both sides the captain, Captain Hamilton, was the first one aboard. His boat of 20 people got up on deck and they found that upper deck largely deserted – they just had a small crew up there. Everyone was down below blasting the guns out into the night. So, it was perfect. So, he sent some top men aloft to loosen the foresails. Everyone else rushed back to seize the wheel. And then a fight started. The Spanish realised what was happening, more men came up from below, but by then reinforcements had come, other ships had appeared, other ships boats. So, bit by bit, in little numbers of between 16 and 25 seamen at a time, the British were coming back, getting on board. And then, once they secured the upper deck, they threw grenades down the hatches to keep the Spanish at bay, and then raced down there themselves. They sent the Marines and the sailors down. But the Spanish weren’t expecting trouble. They were manning the guns. They were armed with trail spikes, the odd dagger and there were these tooled up British Marines and sailors in there with cutlasses in this confined space and essentially pushing them forward and hemming them in the gun deck. They went aft and captured the captain’s cabin. Finally, when more people came on board, they cut the rigging, sorry, they cut the anchor cables, lowered the sails and started taking the ship out to sea. And it was at that moment the Spanish shore batteries finally figured out what was going, ‘Christ they’re stealing our ship’, and they started pounding her with cannonball. One of the round shot punctured the ship side, started leaking, this actually was the trigger for the remaining Spanish to think, ‘gosh, this is this has gone too far’, and they surrendered. A few of them jumped, had the sense to jump out of the gunports and swim for shore. But the Hermione was taken out to sea, or the Santa Cecilia, and when she was alongside the Surprise, they tended to the wounded and were quite amazed that they’d actually captured almost 400 Spanish crewmen. So, it was a fight against the odds which explains why Pocock was so happy to celebrate it. And when the news reached Jamaica, when the ships reached Jamaica (the two ships), the Admiral in charge, Vice-Admiral Hyde Parker, was absolutely delighted, told the Admiralty and celebrations all around. The Navy though had the last laugh they wanted to, he wanted to, call the ship the Revenge – rename it the Revenge. They call it Retribution. The Admiralty insisted on the word’s retribution. She was no longer the Hermione; she would be the HMS Retribution. So that was a warning against mutiny more than just about anything else.

    Sam Willis

    It’s such a wonderful mixture between the Navy’s possibly the worst hour, when there was this mutiny, even though they were mutinying against a really unpleasant captain and also the Navy’s finest hour with this extraordinary act.

    Angus Konstam

    That’s it and in between, you’ve got treachery, mutiny, desertion, all kinds of things and treason thrown in. So, as a story, it’s just one of those lovely gems.

    Sam Willis

    It is a wonderful story. And everyone if you want to find out more do please read ‘Mutiny on the Spanish Main: HMS Hermione and the Royal Navy’s Revenge’ by the wonderful Angus Konstam. Angus, thank you so much for talking to us today

    Angus Konstam

    An absolute pleasure, Sam.

    Sam Willis

    Thank you all so much for listening. As ever, we’ve had more fascinating entries in our free forum, and in particular, a follow up to a recent query from Ian Trackman. Now Ian has been trying to find information on the conception and birth date of Dido Belle, the mixed-race daughter of John Lindsay, he’s commanding officer of HMS Trent, between 1759 and 1763 and Maria Belle, a slave. The birth date was estimated around the 3rd to the 5th of July 1761. And Ian is trying to establish from naval records where she could have been conceived about nine months before her estimated birth date, so in the autumn of 1760. He located the log of HMS Trent at the National Maritime Museum posted it onto the forum. And we’ve had a good bit of deciphering of the logs from one of our members, Nicholas Blake, and he explains what’s going on. We found out that John Lindsay, the commanding officer of HMS Trent was at Cape St Magnus on the 6th of October. He was at the island of Nevis on the 18th of October; 19th at Old Road, St. Christopher’s; 23rd of October St. Eustatius, it is five leagues away; And 24th of October St. Bartholomew is five miles away. The entries of these logs, Nicholas has worked out, shows him possibly leaving the ship on the 20th and the 21st of October when he was moored in Old Roads, St. Christopher, watering the ship – so filling the barrels with fresh drinking water. It’s a fascinating story, and I will keep you posted as more comes to light.

    That’s it for now. Do please follow us on social media, on Twitter we are @nauticalhistory, on Facebook: The Society for Nautical Research. The podcast also has its own Instagram page, and we will be building content on our YouTube page over the coming months. How can you help? Well, please follow us on social media. Please tell everyone and the best thing you can do is to join the Society for Nautical Research @snr.org.uk. Thanks, guys. Bye!

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