The Royalists at Sea in 1649
A detailed account is given of operations by Royalist ships during the year 1649 under the command of Prince Rupert. Although the squadron was in poor condition and lacking in resources it still formed the most effective weapon remaining in Royalist hands. With parliament in power in England the base of operations was shifted from Holland whose continued neutrality was unreliable to Kinsale in Ireland. The activities of both Royalist and Parliamentary ships and commanders are described in detail drawn from a close examination of contemporary documentary sources. The interpretation of these is often problematical due to variable naming of ships and uncertainties and gaps in the historical records. Following some initial successes a strong parliamentary fleet on the Irish coast curtailed Royalist operations. Following Parliamentary landings in Ireland the Royalist position became untenable and Rupert transferred his base to Lisbon where he remained a significant threat to English commerce.