The Thirty Years’ War in the Mediterranean Part II
The second part of this study (Part One is found in 1969 Issue 4) concentrates on the battle for naval supremacy between France and Spain from the return of the French fleet to Toulon in September 1641. Battles off Tarragona and Cape de Gata failed to produce a decisive outcome. By 1644 the French had gained the upper hand in the western Mediterranean and turned their efforts to Spanish possessions in Italy. Further sea battles still failed to resolve matters, but civil unrest in France and the Treaty of Westphalia ended the general European war.