Trafalgar – the Spanish View

By Julian de Zulueta, published November 1980


This article centres on Admiral Don Federico Gravina and begins with his opinions on the superiority of English carriages and gun locks before examining the waning of the Spanish fleet, finally concentrating on the preliminaries and action at Trafalgar. He is revealed as a trusted partner of Villeneuve and Buonaparte yet one fully cognizant of his fleets poor manning, health and motivation for war with England. Nevertheless, Gravina is evidenced as a skilled pragmatist who steered strategy away from challenging a perceived superior enemy fleet only to be overruled by honour in sailing for Trafalgar.

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Filed under: Atlantic | Nelson | Napoleonic War
Subjects include: Battles & Tactics | Weapons

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